Endocrinology of Male Infertility

  • F. C. W. Wu

Abstract

The endocrine and exocrine functions of the testis are inextricably linked anatomically and functionally. Thus for male gametogenesis to proceed normally in the seminiferous tubules, Leydig cells and Sertoli cells, the main targets for hormone action in the testis, must receive the physiological signals generated by an intact endocrine testicular axis. It can therefore be inferred that spermatogenesis is a process that requires complex interactions between different somatic and germ cells within the testis.

Keywords

Cholesterol Adenoma Oestradiol Oligosaccharide Aldosterone 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aiman J, Griffen JE (1982) The frequency of androgen receptor deficiency in infertile men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 54:725–732PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Aiman J, Griffen JE, Gazak JM, Wilson JD, McDonald PC (1979) Androgen insensitivity as a cause of male infertility in otherwise normal men. N Engl J Med 300:223–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Baker HWG (1986) Requirements for controlled therapeutic trials in male infertility. Clin Reprod Fertil 4:13–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Baker HWG, Kovacs GT (1986) Spontaneous improvement in semen quality: regression towards the mean. Int J Androl 8:421–426Google Scholar
  5. Bellve A, Felig, LA (1983) Cell proliferation in the mammalian testis: biology of the seminiferous growth factor (SGF). Recent Progr Hormone Res 40:531–561Google Scholar
  6. Bevan JS, Burke CW, Esiri MM, Adams CBT (1987) Misinterpretation of prolactin levels leading to management errors in patients with sellar enlargement. Am J Med 82:29–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Booth JD, Merriam GR, Clark RW, Loraux DL (1987) Evidence of Leydig cell dysfunction in infertile men with a selective increase in plasma follicle-stimulating hormone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 64:1194–1198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bouchard P, Wright F, Portois MC, Couzinet B, Schaison G, Mowszowica I (1986) Androgen insensitivity in oligospermic men: a reappraisal. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 63:1242–1246Google Scholar
  9. Burger HG, Baker HWG (1982) Therapeutic considerations and results of gonadotropin treatment in male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Ann NY Acad Sci 438:447–453Google Scholar
  10. Burger HG, de Kretser DM, Hudson B, Wilson JD (1981) Effects of preceding androgen therapy on testicular response to human pituitary gonadotropin in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: a study of three patients. Fertil Steril 35:64–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Burris AS, Redband HW, Winters SJ, Sherins RJ (1983) Gonadotropin therapy in men with isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: the response to human chorionic gonadotropin is predicted by initial testicular size. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 66:1144–1151Google Scholar
  12. Carson Jurnica MA, Schrader WT, O’Malley BW (1990) Steroid receptor family: structure and functions. Endocr Rev 11:209–220Google Scholar
  13. Carter JN, Tyson JE, Tolis G, Van Vliet S, Faiman C, Friesen HG (1978) Prolactin-secreting tumours and hypogonadism in 22 men. N Engl J Med 299:847–852PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Chang CV, Kokontis J, Liao S (1988) Structural analysis of complementary DNA and amino acid sequence of human and rat androgen receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:7211–7215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Chapman RM, Sutcliffe BB, Rees LH, Edwards CRW, Malpas JC (1979) Cyclical combination chemotherapy and gonadal function. Lancet i:285–289Google Scholar
  16. Clayton RN (1987) Gonadotrophin releasing hormone: from physiology to pharmacology. Clin Endocrinol 26:361–384Google Scholar
  17. Cooke BA (1990) Is cyclic AMP an obligatory second messenger for luteinizing hormone? Mol Cell Endocrinol 69:C11–C15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Counis R, Jutisz M (1991) Regulation of pituitary gonadotropin gene expression — outline of molecular signalling pathway. Trends Endocrinol Metab 2:181–187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Dalkin AC, Haisenleder DJ, Ortolano GA, Ellis TR, Marshall JC (1989) The frequency of gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation differentially regulates gonadotropin subunit messenger ribonucleic acid expression. Endocrinology 125:917–924PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. de Kretser DM, Robertson DM (1989) The isolation and physiology of inhibin and related proteins. Biol Reprod 40:33–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. de Kretser DM, Burger HG, Hudson B (1974) The relationship between germinal cells and serum FSH levels in males with infertility. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 38:787–793PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. de Kretser DM, Burger HG, Hudson B, Keogh EJ (1975) The hCG stimulation test in men with testicular disorders. Clin Endocrinol 4:591–596Google Scholar
  23. de Kretser DM, McLachlan RI, Robertson DM, Burger HG (1989) Serum inhibin levels in normal men and men with testicular disorders. J Endocrinol 120:517–523PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Dufau ML (1988) Endocrine regulation and communicating functions of the Leydig cell. Ann Rev Physiol 5:483–508Google Scholar
  25. Eil C, Bamblin GT, Hodge TW, Clarke RV, Sherins RS (1985) Whole cell and nuclear androgen uptake in skin fibroblasts from infertile men. J Androl 6:365–371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Fiddes JC, Goodman HM (1981) The gene encoding the common alpha-subunit of the four human glycoprotein hormones. J Mol Appl Genet 1:3–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Finkel DM, Phillips JL, Snyder PJ (1985) Stimulation of spermatogenesis by gonadotropins in men with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. N Eng J Med 313:651–655Google Scholar
  28. Finkelstein JS, O’Dea L St L, Whitcombe RW, Crowley WF Jr (1991) Sex steroid control of gonadotropin secretion in the human male. II. Effects of estradiol administration in normal and gonadotropin-releasing hormone-deficient men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 73:621–628PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Gharib SD, Wierman ME, Shupnik MA, Chin WW (1990) Molecular biology of the pituitary gonadotropins. Endocr Rev 11:177–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Giagulli VA, Vermeulen A (1988) Leydig cell function in infertile men with idiopathic oligospermic infertility. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 66:62–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Giwercman A, van der Masse H, Berthelsen JG, Rorth M, Bertelsen A, Skakkebaek NE (1991) Localized irradiation of testes with carcinoma in situ: effects of Leydig cell function and eradication of malignant germ cells in 20 patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 73:596–603PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Grasso P, Reichert LE (1990) Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor-mediated uptake of 45Ca2+ by culture rat Sertoli cells dose not require activation of cholera toxin or pertusis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide binding proteins or adenylate cyclase. Endocrinology 127:949–956PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Griswold MD (1988) Protein secretions of Sertoli cells. Int Rev Cytol 110:133–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Gross KM, Matsumoto AM, Southworth MB, Bremner WJ. (1985) Evidence for decrease GnRH pulse frequency in men with selective elevation of FSH. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 6:197–202Google Scholar
  35. Habener JF (1990) Cyclic AMP response element binding proteins: a cornucopia of transcription factors. Mol Endocrinol 4:1087–1094PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Hall PF (1988) Testicular steroid synthesis: organization and regulation. In Knobil E, Neill J (eds) The physiology of reproduction, Raven Press, New York, pp 975–998.Google Scholar
  37. Hargreave TB, Elton RB, Sweeting VM, Basralian K (1988) Estradiol and male infertility. Fertil Steril 49:871–875PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Hargreave TB, Richmond JD, Liakatas J, Elton RA, Brown NS (1981) Searching for the infertile men with hyperprolactinaemia. Fertil Steril 36:630–632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Hayflick JS, Adelman JP, Seeberg PH (1990) The complete nucleotide sequence of the human gonadotropin-releasing hormone gene. Nucl Acids Res 17:6304–6403Google Scholar
  40. Heckert LL, Griswold MD (1991) Expression of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor mRNA in rat testes and Sertoli cells. Mol Endocrinol 5:670–677PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Honigl W, Knuth UA and Nieschlag E (1986) Selective reduction of elevated FSH levels in infertile men by pulsatile LHRH treatment. Clin Endocrinol 24:177–182Google Scholar
  42. Hunter WM, Edmond P, Watson GS, MacLean N (1974) Plasma LH and FSH levels in subfertile men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 39:740–749PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Jameson JL, Becker CB, Lindell CM, Habener JF (1988) Human follicle-stimulating hormone beta-subunit gene encodes multiple messenger ribonucleic acids. Mol Endocrinol 2:806–815PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. John ME, John MC, Boggaram V, Simpson ER, Waterman MR (1986) Transcriptional regulation of steroid hydroxylase genes by corticotrophin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83:4715–1719PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Kangasniemi M, Kaipia A, Toppari J, Perheentupa A, Huhtaniemi I, Parvinen M (1990) Cellular regulation of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) binding in rat seminiferous tubules. J Androl 11: 336–343PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Klingmuller D, Dewes W, Krahe T, Brecht C, Schweikert H (1987) Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in patients with anosmia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 65:581–584PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Levalle OA, Aszenmil G, Romo A, Polak E, Del Pozo E, Gentelman A (1988) Altered pulsatile pattern of luteinizing hormone in men with idiopathic oligospermia. Fertil Steril 50:337–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Ley SB, Leonard JM (1985) Male hypogonadotropic-hypogonadism: factors influencing response to human chorionic gonadotropin and human menopausal gonadotropin, including prior exogenous androgens. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 61:746–752PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Lieblich JM, Rogol AD, White BJ, Rosen SW (1982) Syndrome of anosmia with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (Kallmann’s syndrome). Am J Med 73:506–519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Liu L, Banks SM, Barnes KM, Sherins RJ (1988) Two-year comparison of testicular response to pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone and exogenous gonadotropins from the inception of therapy in men with isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 67: 1140–1145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Lubahn DB, Joseph DR, Sullivan PM, Willard HF, French FS, Wilson EM (1988) Cloning of human androgen receptor complementary DNA and localization to the X chromosome. Science 240:327–330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Maroulis GB, Parlow AF, Marshall JR (1977) Isolated follicle stimulating hormone deficiency in man. Fertil Steril 28:818–822PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Matsumoto AM (1989) Hormonal control of spermatogenesis. In: Burger HG, de Kretser DM (eds) The testis, 2nd edn. Raven Press, New York, pp 181–196Google Scholar
  54. Molitch ME (1987) Pathogenesis of pituitary tumours. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 16:503–527PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Morales CR, Alcivar AA, Hecht NB, Griswold MD (1989) Specific mRNA in Sertoli and germ cells of testes form stage-synchronized rats. Mol Endocrinol 3:725–733PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Morris DV, Adeniyi Jones R, Wheeler M, Sonksen P, Jacobs HS (1984) The treatment of hypogona-dotrophic hypogonadism in men by the pulsatile infusion of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone. Clin Endocrinol 21:189–200Google Scholar
  57. Morrow AF, Syonki S, Warne GL, Burger HG, Bangah ML, Outch KH, Mircovics A, Baker HWG (1987) Variable androgen receptor levels in infertile men. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 64:1115–1121Google Scholar
  58. Mozaffarian GA, Higley M, Paulsen CA (1983) Clinical studies in an adult male patient with “isolated follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) deficiency”. J Androl 4:393–398PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Nakayama Y, Wondisford FE, Lash RW, Bale AE, Weintraub BD, Cutler GB Jr, Radovick S (1990) Analysis of gonadotropin-releasing hormone gene structure in families with familial centre precocious puberty and idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 70: 1233–1238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Namiki M, Koide T, Okuyama A, Sonoda T, Itatani H, Miyake A, Aono T, Terada N, Matsumoto K (1984) Abnormality of testicular FSH receptors in infertile men. Acta Endocrinol 106:548–555PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Naor Z (1990) Signal transduction mechanisms of Ca2+ mobilizing hormones; the case of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Endocr Rev 11:326–353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Nieschlag E, Wickings EJ, Mauss J (1979) Endocrine testicular function in vivo and in vitro in infertile men. Acta Endocrinol 90:544–551PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Okuyama A, Nakamura M, Namiki M et al. (1986) Testicular responsiveness to long-term administration of hCG and hMG in patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Hormone Res 23:21–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Orth JM (1984) The role of follicle stimulating hormone in controlling Sertoli cell proliferation in testes of fetal rats. Endocrinology 115:1248–1255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Parvinen M (1982) Regulation of the seminiferous epithelium. Endocr Rev 3:404–417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Rabinowitz D, Cohen M, Rosenman S, Segal S, Bell J (1974) Germinal aplasia of the testis associated with FSF deficiency of hypothalamic origin. Clin Res 22:346AGoogle Scholar
  67. Risbridger GP, de Kretser DM (1989) Paracrine regulation of the testis. In: Burger HG, de Kretser DM (eds) The testis, 2nd edn. Raven Press, New York, pp 255–268Google Scholar
  68. Rivier C, Cajander S, Vaughan J, Hsueh AJW, Vale W (1988) Age-dependent changes in physiological action, content, and immunostaining of inhibin in male rats. Endocrinology 123:120–126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Rodriguez-Rigau LJ, Weiss PB, Smith KD, Steinberger E (1978) Suggestion of abnormals steroidogenesis in some oligospermic men. Acta Endocrinol 87:400–412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Rogol AD, Mittal KK, White BJ, McGinniss MH, Lieblich JM, Rosen SW (1980) HLA compatible paternity in two “fertile eunuchs” with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia (the Kallmann’s syndrome). J Clin Endocrinol Metab 57:275–279Google Scholar
  71. Rommerts FFG (1988) How much androgen is required for maintenance of spermatogenesis. J Endocrinol 116:1–6Google Scholar
  72. Rommerts FFG, van der Molen HJ (1989) Testicular steroidogenesis. In: Burger HG, de Kretser DM (eds) The testis, 2nd edn, Raven Press, New York, pp 303–328Google Scholar
  73. Rommerts FFG, Cooke BA (1988) The mechanisms of action of luteinizing hormone. II. Transducing systems and biological effects. In Cooke BA, King RJB, van der Molen HJ (eds) Hormones and their action, part II. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 163–180.Google Scholar
  74. Rosner W (1990) The functions of corticosteroid-binding protein and sex hormone binding globulin: recent advances. Endocrinol Rev 11:80–91Google Scholar
  75. Russell LD (1980) Sertoli germ cell interrelations: a review Gamete Res 3:179–202Google Scholar
  76. Saal W, Baum RP, Happ J, Schmidt M, Cordes U (1991) Subcutaneous gonadotropin therapy in male patients with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Fertil Steril 56:319–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Sakiyama R, Pardridge WM, Musto NA (1988) Influx of testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG) and TeBG-bound sex steroid hormones into rat testis and prostate. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 67:98–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Schill WB (1982) Medical treatment of idiopathic normogonadotrophic oligospermia. Int J Androl (Suppl) 5:135–153Google Scholar
  79. Schwanzel-Fukuda M, Pfaff DW (1989) Origin of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neuron. Nature 338:161–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Segaloff DL, Sprengel R, Nikolics K, Ascoli M (1990) Structure of the lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor. Recent Progr Hormone Res 46:261–303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Setchell BP (1982) Spermatogenesis and spermatozoa. In: Reproduction in mammals, Book 2. Austin CR, Short RV (eds) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 63–101Google Scholar
  82. Setchell BP, Waites GMH (1975) The blood-testis barrier. In: Handbook of physiology, section 7: Endocrinology, vol V. Male reproductive system. Eds Hamilton DW Greep RO (eds) American Physiological Society Washington DC, pp 143–172Google Scholar
  83. Sharpe RM (1987) Testosterone and spermatogenesis. J Endocrinol 113:1–2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Sharpe RM (1990) Intratesticular control of steroidogenesis. Clin Endocrinol 33:1–21Google Scholar
  85. Simental JA, Sar M, Lane MV, French FS, Wilson EM (1991) Transcriptional activation and nuclear targeting signals of the human androgen receptor. J Biol Chem 266:510–518PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Simpson ER, Lund J, Ahlgren R, Waterman MR (1990) Regulation of cyclic AMP of the genes encoding steroidogenic enzyms: when the light finally shines. Mol Cell Endocrinol 70:C25–C28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Skinner MK (1991) Cell-cell interactions in the testis. Endocr Rev 12:45–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Spratt DI, Hoffman AR, Crowley WF Jr (1986) Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and its treatment. In: Santen RJ, Swerdloff RS (eds) Male reproductive dysfunction. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 227–249Google Scholar
  89. Spratt DI, Carr DB, Merriam GR, Scully RE, Narasimha Rao P, Crowley WF Jr (1987) The spectrum of abnormal patterns of gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion in men with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: clinical and laboratory correlations. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 64:283–291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Sprengel R, Braun T, Nikolics K, Segaloff DL, Seeburg PH (1990) The testicular receptor for follicle stimulating hormone: structure and functional expression of cloned cDNA. Mol Endocrinol 4: 525–530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Steinberger E (1986) Critical assessment of treatment results in male infertility. In Santen RJ, Swerdloff RS (eds), Male reproductive dysfunction. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 373–386Google Scholar
  92. Stewart-Bentley M, Wallack R (1975) Isolated FSH deficiency in a male. Clin Res 23:96AGoogle Scholar
  93. Talmadge K, Vamvakopoulos NC, Fiddes JC (1984) Evolution of the genes for the beta-subunits of human chorionic gonadotropin and luteinizing hormone. Nature 307:37–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Wagner TOF, Brabant G, Von Zur Muhlen A (1985) Slow pulsing oligospermia. In: Wagner TOF (ed) Pulsatile LHRH therapy in the male. TM Verlag, Hameln, pp 111–117Google Scholar
  95. Wagner TOF, Von Zur Muhlen A (1987) “Slow pulsing oligospermia”. Treatment by longtime pulsatile GnRH therapy. In: Wagner TOF, Filicori M (eds) Episodic hormone secretion: from basic science to clinical application. TM-Verlag Hameln, pp 197–202Google Scholar
  96. Wang C, Baker HWG, Burger HG, de Kretser DM, Hudson B (1975) Hormonal studies in Klinefelter’s syndrome. Clin Endocrinol 4:399–414Google Scholar
  97. Waterman MR, Simpson ER (1989) Regulation of steroid hydroxylase gene expression is multifactorial in nature. Recent Progr Hormone Res 45:533–566PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Weinbauer GF, Nieschlag E (1990) The role of testosterone in spermatogenesis. In: Nieschlag E, Behre HM (eds) Testosterone action deficiency substitution. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 23–50Google Scholar
  99. Weiss J, Crowley WF Jr, Jameson JL (1989) Normal structure of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) gene in patients with GnRH deficiency and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 69:299–303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Whitcombe RW, Crowley WF Jr (1990) Diagnosis and treatment of isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone deficiency in men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 70:3–7Google Scholar
  101. Wright WW, Parvinen M, Musto NA, Gunsalus G, Phillips DM, Mather JP, Bardin CW (1983) Identification of stage-specific proteins synthesized by rat seminiferous tubules. Biol Reprod 29: 257–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Wu FCW (1992) Testicular steroidogenesis. In: de Kretser DM (ed) The testes. Baillière, London (Baillières Clin Endocrinol Metab vol 6)Google Scholar
  103. Wu FCW, Edmond P, Raab G, Hunter WM (1981) Endocrine assessment of the subfertile male. Clin Endocrinol 14:493–507Google Scholar
  104. Wu FCW, Swanston IA, Baird DT (1982) Raised plasma oestrogens in infertile men with elevated levels of FSH. Clin Endocrinol 16:39–47Google Scholar
  105. Wu FCW, Feek CM, Glasier AF (1987) Long-term pulsatile GnRH therapy in males with idiopathic hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (IHH). J Endocrinol 112 (Suppl):37Google Scholar
  106. Wu FCW, Taylor PL, Sellar RE (1989) Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone pulse frequency in normal and infertile men. J Endocrinol 123:149–151PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. C. W. Wu

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations