Advertisement

Reorienting Objects with a Robot Hand Using Grasp Gaits

  • Susanna Leveroni
  • Kenneth Salisbury

Abstract

This paper addresses the planning of robot finger motions to enable continuous and stable reorientation of grasped objects. With a given grasp on an object, the range of reorientation through which the fingers may move the object is limited by the workspace of the fingers and grasp stability. If however the object can be properly regrasped without dropping it, further motion of the object in the desired direction may be possible. If we use a hand with more than the minimum number of fingers required for a stable grasp, then it is possible to remove one (or more) of the fingers from the grasp without dropping it. This finger (or these fingers) may be then be replaced on the surface to form a new grasp with which a further increment of reorientation may be achieved. We call the resulting sequences of finger/object motions and regrasps grasp gaits. To develop an approach to planning such gaits we have addressed the problem of reorienting objects which are constrained to lie in the plane. Since a stable grasp in this environment can be achieved with only two fingers, a hand with three fingers may be able to execute a series of regrasps and object motions such that continuous reorientation is possible. Our results show that for certain types of objects, simple stereotypic gaits may be found which achieve this goal. For more restrictive cases, such as low friction at the contacts or oddly shaped objects, we have developed methods which enable us to find more complex gait patterns if they exist.

Keywords

Reference Frame Stable Region Robot Hand Convex Object Object Rotation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    Mason, MT, Salisbury, JK. Robot Hands and the Mechanics of Manipulation, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1985.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Jacobsen, SC, et al. Design of the Utah/MIT Dextrous Hand, Proc. 1987 IEEE Interna-tional Conference on Robotics and Automation, San Francisco, Apr. 1987.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Nguyen, V-D. Constructing Force-closure Grasps. IJRR 1988; 7 (3): 3–16.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Coelho Jr., J. Grupen, R. Optimal Multifingered Grasp Synthesis. In Proc. 1994 IEEE Int Conf. on Robotics and Aumation, San Diego, 1994.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Pollard, NS. Parallel Methods for Synthesizing Whole-Hand Grasps from Generalized Prototypes, MIT AI Lab. TR-1464, January 1994Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Bicchi, A. “Optimization of Robotic Grasping Forces,” in Proc. of the American Control Conference, 1992.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Howe, RD, Cutkosky, MR. Touch Sensing for Robotic Manipulation and Recognition, in The Robotics Review 2, MIT Press, 1992.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Allen, P. Robotic Object Recognition Using Vision and Touch, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Kerr, J. Roth, B. Analysis of Multifingered Hands, The Int. J. of Robotics Research, 4 (4): 3–17, 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Li, Z, Canny, J, Sastry, S. On Motion Planning for Dextrous Manipulation, Part I;: The Problem Formulation. Proceedings of IEEE Conf. on Robotics and Automation, Scottsdale AZ, 1989.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Brock, D. Enhancing the Dexterity of a Robot Hand Using Controlled Slip. TR992, Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, May 1987.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Rus, D. Coordinated Manipulation of Polygonal Objects, IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 1993.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Abell, T, Erdmann, M. Stably Supported Rotations of a Planar Polygon with Two Frictionless Contacts. IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligence Robots and Systems, vol. 3, pp.411–418, Pittsburgh, PA, August 1995.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Omata, T and Nagata, K. Planning Reorientation of an Object with a MultiFingered Hand, Proceedings of the 1994 IEEE Inter-national Conference on Robotics and Automation, May, 1994, San Diego, CA volume 4, pp 3104–3110Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Fearing, R. Simplified Grasping and Manipulation with Dexterous Robot Hands. IEEE International Journal of Robotics and Automation 1986; 2(4).Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Hong, J, Lafferriere, G, Mishra, B, and Tan, X. Fine Manipulation with Multifinger Hands. IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 1568–1573, Cincinatti, OH, May 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    Chen, I-M, and Burdick, JW. A Qualitative Test for N-Finger Force-Closure Grasps on Planar Objects with Applications to Manipulation and Finger Gaits. IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 814–820, Atlanta, GA, 1993.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    McGhee, R. and Frank, A. On the Stability Properties of Quadruped Creeping Gaits, In Mathematical Biosciences, vol. 3, pp. 331–351, 1968.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Leveroni, S. PhD Thesis, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MIT. In preparation.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susanna Leveroni
    • 1
  • Kenneth Salisbury
    • 1
  1. 1.AI Laboratory and Dept. of Mechanical EngineeringMITCambridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations