Safe Comp 97 pp 321-331 | Cite as

Towards Safer Industrial Computer Controlled Systems

  • P. R. Croll
  • C. Chambers
  • M. Bowell
  • P. W. H. Chung


A study of 21 incidents involving electrical, electronic and/or programmable electronic safety-related systems in small manufacturing enterprises, originally investigated by the Health and Safety Laboratory, has revealed that 40% of contributory faults are due to inadequate specification of system or safety requirements. Consequently the HAZAPS methodology and supporting software tool is proposed as a useful step forward in producing safer industrial computer controlled systems. The tool is demonstrated using a case study and suggestions are made for its improvement.


Safety Requirement International Electrotechnical Commission Corrective Maintenance Hazard Identification Fault Removal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    Stavridou V. Boothroyed A. Boyce T. et al. Developing and Assessing Safety Critical Systems with Formal Methods: The SafeFM way, High Integrity Systems, Vol 1, pp 541– 545,1996.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Brazendale J. Bell R. Safety-Related Control and Protection Systems: Standards Update, Computing & Control Engineering Journal, Vol. 5, pp. 6–12, Oct 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Croll PR. Chambers C. Bowell M. A Study of Incidents Involving Electrical/Electronic/Programmable Electronic Safety-Related Systems, Proc 1st Int workshop on Human Error and System Development, Glasgow, March 20–22,1997.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Modugo F. Leveson N.G. Reese J.D. et al. Creating and Analysing Requirement Specifications of Joint Human–Computer Controllers for Safety-Critical Systems, Symposium on Human Interaction with Complex Systems, Aug 25–26,1996.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    IEC, Int Standard IEC1131 Programmable Controllers - part 3: Programming Languages, Geneva, International Electrotechnical Commission. 1993.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Lewis R. W. Programming industrial control systems using IEC 1131–3, IEE, 1995.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Leveson N.G., Safeware; System Safety and Computers, Addison Wesley, 1995.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Storey N. Safety-Critical Computer Systems, published by Addison-Wesley, 1996.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Parnas D.L. Asmis G.J.K. Madey J. Assessment of Safety-Critical Software in Nuclear Power Plants, Nuclear Safety, Vol 32, pp. 189–198,1991.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    UK Health and Safety Executive, Out of Control, HMSO Press, 1995.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Draft Int. Standard IEC 1508, Functional Safety of Electrical/Electronic/Programmable Electronic Safety-Related Systems, Geneva, International Electrotechnical Commission. 1995.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Kletz T. Chung P.W.H. Broomfield E. Chaim S. Computer Control and Human Error, IChemE, 1995.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Fenelon P.N. Hebbron B.N Applying HAZOP to Software Engineering Models, Tech Report, HISE Group, University of York. 1996.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Laprie J.C. Dependability: from Concepts to Limits, 12th Int. Conf on Computer Safety, Reliability and Security, London, pp 157–168,1993.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Broomfield E.J. Chung P.W.H. Using Incident Analysis to Derive a Methodology for Assessing Safety in Programmable Systems, Proc 3rd Safety-Critical Systems Symposium, pp. 223–239, Springer-Verlag, 1995.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Elliot D.M. Owen J.M. Critical Examination in Process Design, The Chemical Engineer, pp 377–383, November 1968.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. R. Croll
    • 1
  • C. Chambers
    • 1
  • M. Bowell
    • 2
  • P. W. H. Chung
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceThe University of SheffieldUK
  2. 2.Health and Safety Laboratory Broad LaneUK
  3. 3.Department of Chemical EngineeringLoughborough University of TechnologyLoughboroughUK

Personalised recommendations