Advertisement

From STARNET to CORD: Lessons Learned from Stanford WDM Projects

  • Leonid Kazovsky
  • R. Theodore Hofmeister
  • Steven M. Gemelos
Conference paper

Abstract

The design of an optical WDM network requires the resolution of six key issues: (1) topology; (2) signaling and control; (3) slot synchronization; (4) bit clock recovery; (5) interfacing; and (6) node structure. The Optical Communications Research Laboratory (OCRL) at Stanford University has developed two optical WDM networks: STARNET and CORD. In the development of these networks, several different approaches have been taken to address each of these six issues. The approaches developed and tested include: physical star topology with reconfigurable logical ring and star topologies; combined modulation and multichannel subcarrier multiplexing to provide out-of-band control; asynchronous electronic buffering and network-wide slot alignment for slot synchronization; parallel oversampling, embedded clock tone, and PLL techniques for bit clock recovery; electronic and optical techniques for interfacing with other networks; and various node structures based on electronic and optical buffering schemes. In this paper we describe and contrast the approaches taken in STARNET and CORD and conclusions are drawn as to which techniques are best suited for the next generation WDM optical networks.

Keywords

Optical Network Wavelength Division Multiplex Control Channel Phase Lock Loop Slave Node 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    SF Su and R Olshansky, “Performance of multiple access WDM networks with subcarrier multiplexed control channels”, Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 11, no.5/6, pp. 1028–33, May/June 1993.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    M Hickey, FJ Westphal, J Fan, G Jacobsen, and LG Kazovsky, “Combined ASK/FSK modulation for the STARNET WDM computer network,” LEOS ’94, Summer Topical Meeting Digest on Optical Networks and Their Enabling Technologies, pp. 38–9, Lake Tahoe, NV, July 1994.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    LG Kazovsky, and P Poggiolini, “STARNET: A multi-gigabit-per-second optical LAN utilizing a passive WDM star,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 11, No. 5/6, pp. 1009–1027, May/June 1993.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    LG Kazovsky, “Performance analysis and laser linewidth requirements for optical PSK heterodyne communication systems,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 4, No. 4, p. 415–425, April 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    M J Hickey, CF Barry, CA Noronha, and LG Kazovsky, “Experimental PSK/ASK transceiver for the STARNET WDM computer communication network,” IEEE Photonic Technology Letter, Vol. 5, No. 5, pp. 568–571, May 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    FJ Westphal, M Hickey, and LG Kazovsky, “An experimental DPSK/ASK transceiver for the STARNET coherent WDM network,” CLEO 1994, pp. 337–338, Anaheim, CA, May 1994.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    P Poggiollini, and S Benedetto, “Theory of subcarrier encoding of packet headers in quasi-all-optical broadband WDM networks,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1869–1881, Oct. 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    CL Lu, DJ Sabido IX, P Poggiollini, RT Hofmeister, and LG Kazovsky, “CORD - a WDMA optical network: Subcarrier-based signaling and control scheme,” IEEE Photonic Technology Letters, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 555–557, May 1995.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    I Chlamtac, A Fumagalli, LG Kazovsky, P Melman, W H Nelson, P Poggiolini, M Cerisola, ANM Choudhury, TK Fong, RT Hofmeister, CL Lu, A. Mekkittikul, DJM Sabido IX, C. J. Suh, and EWM Wong, “CORD: Contention Resolution by Delay lines”, IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 1014–29, June 1996.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    M Burzio, P Cinato, R Rinotti, P Gambini, M Puleo, E Vezzoni, L Zucchelli, “Optical cell synchronisation in an ATM optical switch”, Proc. of ECOC ’94, vol. 2, pp. 581–4, Firenze, Italy, Sept. 1994.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    M Cerisola, TK Fong, RT Hofmeister, LG Kazovsky, CL Lu, A Mekkittikul, and P Poggiolini, “A novel distributed slot synchronization technique for optical WDM packet networks”, OFC’96 Technical Digest, vol. 2, pp. 314–5, San Jose, CA, Feb. 1996.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    M Cerisola, TK Fong, RT Hofmeister, LG Kazovsky, and P Poggiolini, “An ultra-fast clock recovery technique for high-speed optical packet networks”, IEE Electronics Letters, vol. 31, no. 19, pp. 1687–8, Sept. 1995.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    CL Lu, TK Fong, RT Hofmeister, P Poggiolini, and LG Kazovsky, “CORD - A WDMA optical network: fast data synchronization by pilot-tone transport”, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Chih-Kong Ken Yang and Mark A. Horowitz, “A 0.8 urn CMOS 2.5 Gb/s oversampled receiver for series links,” Proc. of 1996 IEEE International Solid-State Circuit Conference (ISSCC’96), FP 12.4, pp. 200–1, Feb. 1996.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    CL Lu, DJM Sabido IX, RT Hofmeister, P Poggiolini, and LG Kazovsky, “Power budget optimization of a WDM network with multichannel subcarrier multiplexing control”, IEE Electronics Letters, vol. 31, no. 18, pp. 1598–600, August 1995.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    W. H. Nelson, A. N. M. Masum Choudhury, M. Abdalla, R. Bryant, E. Meland, and W. Niland, “Wavelength independent InP/InGaAsP digital optical switches with extinction ratio exceeding 20 dB at both 1.3 urn and 1.5 urn”, Proc. ECOC ’94, pp. 523–6, Florence, Italy, Sept. 1994. Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    W. H. Nelson, A. N. M. Masum Choudhury, M. Abdalla, R. Bryant, E. Meland, and W. Niland, “Wavelength and polarization independent large angle InP/InGaAsP digital optical switches with extinction ratio exceeding 20 dB”, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 6, pp. 1332–4, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    W. H. Nelson, “Progress on digital optical switches and switch arrays”, Proc. OFC ’95, pp. 280–1, San Diego, Feb. 1995. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leonid Kazovsky
    • 1
  • R. Theodore Hofmeister
    • 1
  • Steven M. Gemelos
    • 1
  1. 1.Optical Communications Research LaboratoryStanford UniversityStanfordUSA

Personalised recommendations