Skip to main content

Automatic Control — The Hidden Technology

  • Conference paper

Summary

The field of automatic control is about 50 years old. This paper presents some reflections on the dynamic development. Automatic control represented a paradigm shift from the traditional split of engineering into civil, mechanical, electrical, and chemical. Key ideas in the development are presented. The interplay of theory and applications are discussed as well as relations to other fields such as mathematics and computer science. It is attempted to make an assessment of the current status. The lecture ends with some speculations about future development.

Keywords

  • Automatic Control
  • Automatic Control System
  • Flight Control
  • State Space Theory
  • Bell System Technical Journal

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4471-0853-5_1
  • Chapter length: 28 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   129.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-1-4471-0853-5
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   169.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. K. J. Åström. Introduction to Stochastic Control Theory. Academic Press, New York, 1970. Translated into Russian, Japanese and Chinese.

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  2. K. J. Åström and T. Bohlin. Numerical identification of linear dynamic systems from normal operating records. In Proc. IFAC Conference on Self-Adaptive Control Systems, Teddington, UK, 1965.

    Google Scholar 

  3. K. J. Åström and T. Hägglund. PID Controllers: Theory, Design, and Tuning. Instrument Society of America, Research Triangle Park, NC, second edition, 1995.

    Google Scholar 

  4. K. J. Åström and B. Wittenmark. Computer Controlled Systems—Theory and Design. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, second edition, 1990.

    Google Scholar 

  5. K. J. Åström and B. Wittenmark. Adaptive Control. Addis on-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts, second edition, 1995.

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  6. M. Athans and P. L. Falb. Optimal Control. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966.

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  7. R. Bellman. Dynamic Programming. Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 1957.

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  8. R. Bellman, I. Glicksberg, and O. A. Gross. Some aspects of the mathematical theory of control processes. Technical Report R-313, The RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, Calif, 1958.

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  9. S. Bennet. A History of Control Engineering 1800–1930. Peter Peregrinus, London, 1979.

    Google Scholar 

  10. S. Bennet. A History of Control Engineering 1930–1955. Peter Peregrinus, London, 1993.

    Google Scholar 

  11. A. Benveniste and K. J. Åström. Meeting the challenge of computer science in the industrial applications of control: An introductory discussion to the Special Issue. Automatica, 29:1169–1175, 1993.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  12. H. S. Black. Stabilized feedback amplifiers. Bell System Technical Journal, 13:1–18, 1934.

    Google Scholar 

  13. H. S. Black. Inventing the negative feedback amplifier. IEEE spectrum, pages 55–60, December 1977.

    Google Scholar 

  14. H. W. Bode. Relations between attenuation and phase in feedback amplifier design. Bell System Technical Journal, 19:421–454, July 1940.

    Google Scholar 

  15. H. W. Bode. Network Analysis and Feedback Amplifier Design. Van Nostrand, New York, 1945.

    Google Scholar 

  16. H. W. Bode. Feedback — The history of an idea. In Proceedings of the Symposium on Active Networks and Feedback Systems. Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, 1960.

    Google Scholar 

  17. G. S. Brown and D. P. Campbell. Principles of Servomechanisms. Wiley & Sons, New York, 1948.

    Google Scholar 

  18. A. E. Bryson and Y. C. Ho. Applied Optimal Control Optimization, Estimation and Control. Blaisdell Publishing Company, 1969.

    Google Scholar 

  19. V. Bush. The differential analyzer. JFI, 212(4):447–488, 1931.

    Google Scholar 

  20. H. Chestnut, editor. Impact of Automatic Control—Present and Future. VDI/VDE-Gesellschaft, Duesseldorf, 1982.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Harold Chestnut and Robert W. Mayer. Servomechanisms and Regulating System Design. Wiley, New York, 1959.

    Google Scholar 

  22. D. P. Eckman. Principles of industrial process control. Wiley, New York, 1945.

    Google Scholar 

  23. A. A. Feldbaum. Optimal Control Theory. Academic Press, New York, 1965.

    Google Scholar 

  24. W. H. Fleming, editor. Future Directions in Control Theory—A Mathematical Perspective. Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, 1988.

    Google Scholar 

  25. J. C. Gille, M. J. Pelegrin, and P. Decaulne. Feedback Control Systems. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1959.

    Google Scholar 

  26. H. J. Harris. The analysis and design of servomechanisms. Printed under Auspices of the Fire Control Committee (Sec. D-2) of NDRC, OSRD, 1942.

    Google Scholar 

  27. H. L. Hazen. Theory of servomechanisms. JFI, 218:283–331, 1934.

    Google Scholar 

  28. T. P. Hughes. Elmer Sperry Inventor and Engineer. The John Hopkins University Press, London, 1993.

    Google Scholar 

  29. A. Hurwitz. On the conditions under which an equation has only roots with negative real parts. Mathematische Annalen, 46:273–284, 1895.

    MathSciNet  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  30. A. Ivanoff. Theoretical foundations of the automatic regulation of temperature. J. Inst. Fuel, 7:117–130, 1934. discussion pp. 130–138.

    Google Scholar 

  31. H. M. James, N. B. Nichols, and R. S. Phillips. Theory of Servomechanisms. Mc-Graw-Hill, New York, 1947.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Rolf Johansson. System Modeling and Identification. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1993.

    Google Scholar 

  33. E. I. Jury. Sampled-Data Control Systems. John Wiley, New York, 1958.

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  34. S. Kahne. A history of the ifac congress. IEEE CSM, 16(2):10–12, 1996.

    Google Scholar 

  35. S. Kahne. A history of the ifac congress. IEEE CSM, 16(2): 78–83, 1996.

    Google Scholar 

  36. R. E. Kaiman. Contributions to the theory of optimal control. Boletin de la Sociedad Matématica Mexicana, 5:102–119, 1960.

    Google Scholar 

  37. R. E. Kaiman. New methods and results in linear prediction and filtering theory. Technical Report 61-1, RIAS, February 1961. 135 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  38. R. E. Kaiman. On the general theory of control systems. In Proceedings first IFAC Congress on Automatic Control, Moscow, 1960, volume 1, pages 481–492, London, 1961. Butterworths.

    Google Scholar 

  39. R. E. Kaiman and R. S. Bucy. New results in linear filtering and prediction theory. Trans ASME (J. Basic Engineering), 83 D:95–108, 1961.

    Google Scholar 

  40. R. E. Kaiman, P. L. Falb, and M. A. Arbib. Topics in Mathematical System Theory. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969.

    Google Scholar 

  41. R. E. Kaiman, Y. Ho, and K. S. Narendra. Controllability of Linear Dynamical Systems, volume 1 of Contributions to Differential Equations. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1963.

    Google Scholar 

  42. A. N. Kalmogorov. Interpolation and Extrapolation of Stationary Random Sequences. Math. 5. Bull. Moscow Univ., USA, 1941.

    Google Scholar 

  43. A. H. Levis. Challenges to control—a collective view report of the workshop held at university of santa clara on September 18–19, 1986. IEEE Trans. Automat. Contr., AC-32:274–285, 1987.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  44. L. Ljung. System Identification—Theory for the User. Prentice Hall, Engle-wood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1987.

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  45. U. Luoto. 20 Years Old; 20 Years Young. An Anniversary Publication 1957–1977. Pergamon Press, 1978. IFAC International Federation of Automatic Control.

    Google Scholar 

  46. U. Luoto. 20 years old, 20 years young, an anniversary publication 1957–1977. Pergamon Press, 1978.

    Google Scholar 

  47. A. M. Lyapunov. The General Problem of the Stability of Motion (in Russian). Kharkov Mathematical Society (250 pp.), 1892. Collected Works II, 7. Republished by the University of Toulouse 1908 and Princeton University Press 1949 (in French, republished in English by Int. J. Control 1992.

    Google Scholar 

  48. L. A. MacColl. Fundamental Theory of Servomechanisms. D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., New York, N. Y., 1945.

    Google Scholar 

  49. J. C. Maxwell. On governors. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 16:270–283, 1868. Also published in “Mathematical Trends in Control Theory” edited by R. Bellman and R. Kalaba, Dover Publications, New York 1964, pp. 3–17.

    MATH  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  50. O. Mayr. Zur Frühgeschichte der Technischen Regelungen. R. Oldenbourg, München, 1969.

    Google Scholar 

  51. M. W ed. McFarland. The Papers of Wilbur and Orville Wright. Mc Graw Hill, New York, 1953.

    Google Scholar 

  52. D. McRuer and D. Graham. Eighty years of flight control: Triumphs and pitfalls of the systems approach. J. Guidance and Control, 4(4):353–362, July-August 1981.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  53. N. Minorsky. Directional stability of automatically steered bodies. J. Amer. Soc. of Naval Engineers, 34(2):280–309, 1922.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  54. George C. Newton, Jr, Leonard A. Gould, and James F. Kaiser. Analytical Design of Linear Feedback Controls. John Wiley & Sons, 1957.

    Google Scholar 

  55. Harry Nyquist. Regeneration theory. Bell System Technical Journal, 11:126–147, 1932. Also published in “Mathematical Trends in Control Theory” edited by R. Bellman and R. Kalaba, Dover Publications, New York 1964, pp. 83–105.

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  56. R. C. Oldenbourg and H. Sartorius. Dynamik der Selbstättigen Regelungen. Oldebbourg-Verlag, München, 1944.

    Google Scholar 

  57. R. C. Oldenbourg and H. Sartorius. Dynamics of Automatic Controls. ASME, New York, N. Y, 1948.

    Google Scholar 

  58. R. Oldenburger. Frequency Response. The MacMillan Company, New York, 1955.

    Google Scholar 

  59. W Oppelt. Die Flugzeugkurssteuerung im Geradeausflug. Luftfahrtforschung, 14:270–282, 1937.

    Google Scholar 

  60. W. Oppelt. Kleines Handbuch technischer Regelvorgænge. Verlag Chemie, 1947.

    Google Scholar 

  61. W. Oppelt. Kleines Handbuch technischer Regelvorgänge. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim, 1964.

    Google Scholar 

  62. L. S. Pontryagin, V. G. Boltyanskii, R. V. Gamkrelidze, and E. F. Mischenko. The Mathematical Theory of Optimal Processes. John Wiley, New York, 1962.

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  63. J. R. Ragazzini and G. F Franklin. Sampled-Data Control Systems. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1958.

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  64. E. J. Routh. A Treatise on the Stability of a Given State of Motion. Macmillan, London, 1877. Reprinted in Fuller (1975).

    Google Scholar 

  65. E. S. Smith. Automatic Control Engineering. McGraw Hill, New York, 1944.

    Google Scholar 

  66. Torsten Söderström and Petre Stoica. System Identification. Prentice-Hall, London, UK, 1989.

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  67. V. V. Solodovnikov. The frequency-response method in the theory of regulation. Automatica i Telemekhanika, 8:65–88, 1947.

    MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  68. G. Stein. Respect the unstable. In The 1989 Bode Lecture, IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 1989. IEEE Control Systems Society.

    Google Scholar 

  69. J. Strothman. More than a century of measuring. InTech, pages 52–78, June 1995.

    Google Scholar 

  70. M. Tolle. Die Regelung der Kraftmaschinen. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1905. 1909, 2nd edition; 1922, 3rd edition.

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  71. J. Truxal. Automatic Feedback Control System Synthesis. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1955.

    Google Scholar 

  72. H. F. Tsien. Engineering Cybernetics. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc, New York, 1954.

    Google Scholar 

  73. Ya. Z. Tsypkin. Theorie der Relais Systeme der Automatischen Regelung. R. Oldenburg, Munich, Germany, 1958.

    Google Scholar 

  74. A. Tustin, editor. Automatic and Manual Control: Proceedings of the 1951 Cranfield Conference, New York, N. Y, 1952. Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  75. J. Vyshnegradskii. Sur la théorie générale des régulateurs. Compt. Rend. Acid. Sci. Paris, 83:318–321, 1876.

    Google Scholar 

  76. N. Wiener. Cybernetics or control and communication in the animal and the machine. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1948.

    Google Scholar 

  77. N. Wiener. The Extrapolation, Interpolation, and Smoothing of Stationary Time Series with Engineering Applications. Wiley, New York, 1949. Originally issued as a classified MIT Rad. Lab. Report in February, 1942.

    Google Scholar 

  78. L. A. Zadeh and C. A. Desoer. Series in Systems Science. McGraw-Hill, Inc., USA, 1963.

    Google Scholar 

  79. J. G. Ziegler and N. B. Nichols. Optimum settings for automatic controllers. Trans. ASME, 64:759–768, 1942.

    Google Scholar 

  80. J. G. Ziegler, N. B. Nichols, and N. Y. Rochester. Process lags in automatic-control circuits. Trans. ASME, 65:433–444, July 1943.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 1999 Springer-Verlag London Limited

About this paper

Cite this paper

Åström, K.J. (1999). Automatic Control — The Hidden Technology. In: Frank, P.M. (eds) Advances in Control. Springer, London. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-0853-5_1

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-0853-5_1

  • Publisher Name: Springer, London

  • Print ISBN: 978-1-4471-1216-7

  • Online ISBN: 978-1-4471-0853-5

  • eBook Packages: Springer Book Archive