Design for Safety

  • Neil Storey


Perhaps an appropriate starting point for a paper entitled ‘Design for Safety’ is to define what we mean by ‘design’ and to see how considerations of ‘safety’ are likely to affect this task. According to the STARTS Guide [STARTS 1987] the design process may be divided into four distinct activities:
  • abstraction: the operation of generalising, of identifying the essentials;

  • decomposition: the process of reducing an object into a number of simpler, smaller parts; analysis of interactions, interfaces and structures; modularization;

  • elaboration: the operation of detailing, adding features;

  • decision making: identification and selection of alternative strategies.


Fault Detection Fault Tolerance Design Fault Software Fault Triple Modular Redundancy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [Anderson 1990]
    Anderson T, and Lee P A: Fault Tolerance: Principles and Practice, 2nd edn., Springer-Verlag, New York, 1990.MATHGoogle Scholar
  2. [Avizienis 1985]
    Avizienis A: The N-version approach to fault-tolerant software, IEEE Trans. Software Eng., 11 (12), 1491–1501, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [Carré 1990]
    Carré B A, Jennings T J, Maclennan F J, Farrow P F and Garnsworth J R: SPARK - The SPADE Ada Kernel, 3nd edn, Program Validation Limited, Southampton, 1990.Google Scholar
  4. [DoD 1992]
    Military Standardization Handbook: Reliability Prediction of Electronic Equipment,United States Department of Defense MILHDBK-217F, 1992.Google Scholar
  5. [IEC 1995]
    Draft International Standard 1508 Functional Safety: Safety-Related Systems, International Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva, 1995.Google Scholar
  6. [Jackson 1983]
    Jackson M: System Design, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1983.Google Scholar
  7. [Leveson 1995]
    Leveson N G: Safeware: System Safety and Computers Addison- Wesley, Reading, MA, 1995.Google Scholar
  8. [Lewis 1996]
    Lewis E E: Introduction to Reliability Engineering 2nd edn., John Wiley, New York, 1996.Google Scholar
  9. [Littlewood 1993]
    Littlewood B and Strigini L: Validation of ultrahigh dependability for software-based systems, Comm. ACM, 36 (11), 69–80, 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [MISRA 1998]
    Guidelines for the use of the C Language in Vehicle Based Software,Motor Industry Software Reliability Association, Nuneaton, UK, 1998.Google Scholar
  11. [Pyle 1991]
    Pyle I C: Developing Safety Systems: A Guide Using Ada, Prentice- Hall, Hemel Hempstead, UK, 1991.Google Scholar
  12. [RSRE 1987]
    The Official Handbook of MASCOT Version 3. RSRE Computer Division, Malvern, 1987.Google Scholar
  13. [STARTS 1987]
    STARTS Purchasers’ Group: The STARTS Guide: Vol 1, 2nd edn., National Computing Centre Publications, Manchester, 1987.Google Scholar
  14. [Storey 1996]
    Storey N: Safety-Critical Computer Systems Addison Wesley, Harlow, UK, 1996.Google Scholar
  15. [Wichmann 1993]
    Wichmann B A: Microprocessor design faults, Microprocessors and Microsystems, 17 (7), 399–401, 1993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [Yourdon 1979]
    Yourdon E and Constantine L: Structured Design: Fundamentols of a Discipline of Computer Program and Systems Design Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Neil Storey
    • 1
  1. 1.University of WarwickCoventryUK

Personalised recommendations