Congenital Abnormalities

  • Isabel Stabile
  • Tim Chard
  • Gedis Grudzinskas

Abstract

Serious congenital abnormalities occur in 2% of live births, 30% of stillbirths and 18% of first week neonatal deaths, accounting for 25% of perinatal deaths. They may be due to (a) genetic (chromosomal or single-gene) defects, (b) environmental factors (alcohol, drugs, toxic chemicals), or (c) a combination (multisystem abnormalities).

Keywords

Influenza Warfarin Cataract Hydrocephalus Hypothyroidism 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Isabel Stabile
    • 1
  • Tim Chard
    • 2
  • Gedis Grudzinskas
    • 3
  1. 1.Center for Prevention and Early Intervention PolicyFlorida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA
  2. 2.Reproductive Physiology Laboratory, Department of Obstetrics and GynaecologySt Bartholomew’s HospitalLondonUK
  3. 3.Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 4th Floor, Holland WingThe Royal London HospitalLondonUK

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