A History of External Fixation

  • A. G. Apley
  • M. H. Noordeen


“History is bunk!” If you believe this remarkable statement with which, in 1919, Henry Ford stunned a courtroom, then you might as well turn to the next chapter. But if you agree with others who maintain that “those who neglect the mistakes of history are condemned to repeat them”, then read on.


External Fixation Outer Cortex Bone Transport Adjust Screw Limb Lengthening 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Groves E.W. Hey, (1921) Modern Methods of Treating Fractures Wright: Bristol.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adams F, (trans) (1939) The Work of Hippocrates Williams and Wilkins: Baltimore.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Peltier, L, ‘An Abridged Report on External Skeletal Fixation: Hippocrates’, Clin Orthop 1989; 241: 3–4.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lewis K.M., Breidenback L., Stader (1942) ‘The Stader Reduction Splint for Treating Fractures of the Shafts of Long Bones’, Ann Surg 116: 623–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Charnley J, (1950) The Closed Treatment of Common Fractures, Churchill Livingstone.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Belivens F, Editorial Comment Clin Orthop 1989; 241: 2.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Burny F, (1979) ‘Elastic External Fixation of Tibial Fractures: study of 1421 cases’ in Brooker A F and Edwards C C, (eds) External Fixation: The Current State of the Art Williams and Wilkins: Baltimore.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Klapp F, ‘Precursors of the Ilizarov technique’ Injury 24 Supp 2: S24–S28.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Klapp R, Block W (1930) Die Knochenbruchbehandlung mit Drahtzügen Urban and Schwarzenburg, Berlin, Vienna.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ilizarov G, (1971) ‘Basic Principles of Transosseal Osteosynthesis by Compression and Distraction’ Orthop Travmatol Protez 7 (Russian).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Abbot LC, Saunders JB, (1939) ‘The Operative Lengthening of the Tibia and Fibula, A preliminary report on the further development of principles and techniques’ Ann Surg 110: 961–991.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kenwright J, White SHA, ‘A Historical Review of Limb Lengthening and Bone Transport’ Injury 1993; 24 Suppl. 2: S9–S19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. G. Apley
  • M. H. Noordeen

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations