• Åke Grönlund
Part of the Practitioner Series book series (PRACT.SER.)


To conclude this book, let us briefly summarize our advice to cities wanting to start their own electronic services, or wanting to improve those already existing. The advice is organized according to the four-leafed clover of the ESM model: users, organization, economy and technology, in that order. This order is determined by the relative importance of each leaf of the clover.


Income Marketing Pyramid Arena Editing 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Åke Grönlund
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of InformaticsUmeå UniversitySweden

Personalised recommendations