• Åke Grönlund
Part of the Practitioner Series book series (PRACT.SER.)


To conclude this book, let us briefly summarize our advice to cities wanting to start their own electronic services, or wanting to improve those already existing. The advice is organized according to the four-leafed clover of the ESM model: users, organization, economy and technology, in that order. This order is determined by the relative importance of each leaf of the clover.


User Group Editorial Board Cognitive Overload Ideal Service Electronic Service 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Åke Grönlund
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of InformaticsUmeå UniversitySweden

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