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Nanofabrication of Functional Nanostructures by Thermochemical Nanolithography

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Tip-Based Nanofabrication
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Abstract

Nanofabrication is the process of building functional structures with nanoscale dimensions, which can be used as components, devices, or systems with high density, in large quantities, and at low cost. Since the invention of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) in 1980s, the application of scanning probe based lithography (SPL) techniques for modification of substrates and creation of functional nanoscale structures and nanostructured materials has been widespread, resulting in the emergence of a large variety of methodologies. In this chapter, we review the recent development of a thermal probe based nanofabrication technique called thermochemical nanolithography (TCNL). We start with a brief review of the evolution of the thermal AFM probes integrated with resistive heaters. We then provide an overview of some established nanofabrication techniques in which thermal probes are used, namely thermomechanical nanolithography, the Millipede project, and thermal dip-pen nanolithography. We discuss the heat transfer mechanisms of the thermal probes in the thermal writing process of TCNL. The remainder of the chapter focuses on the use of TCNL on a variety of systems and thermochemical reactions. TCNL has been successfully used for fabrication of functional nanostructures that are appealing for various applications in nanofluidics, nanoelectronics, nanophotonics, and biosensing devices. Finally, we close this chapter by discussing some future research directions where the capabilities and robustness of TCNL can be further extended.

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Abbreviations

AFM:

Atomic force microscopy

CD:

Cluster of differentiation

CF:

Covalent functionalization

DPN:

Dip-pen nanolithography

GO:

Graphene oxide

ICAM:

Inter-cellular adhesion molecule

IgG:

Immunoglobulin G

MEMS:

Microelectromechanical system

MR:

Molecular recognition

PKC-θ:

Protein kinase C-θ

PMC-MA:

Poly(3-(4-[(E)-3-methoxy-3-oxoprop-1-enyl]phenoxy)propyl 2-methacrylate)

PMMA:

Poly(methyl methacrylate)

PPV:

Poly(p-phenylene vinylene)

SAM:

Self-assembled monolayers

SOI:

Silicon-on-insulator

SPL:

Scanning probe lithography

SPM:

Scanning probe microscopy

STM:

Scanning tunneling microscopy

TCNL:

Thermochemical nanolithography

tDPN:

Thermal dip-pen nanolithography

THP-MA:

Poly(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-ylmeth-acrylate)

T g :

Temperature of glass transition in organic polymer materials

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Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Dr. Seth R. Marder and his research group for the fruitful discussions and the preparation of TCNL polymer samples. We would also like to acknowledge Dr. William P. King and his research group for their continuing support on thermal AFM probes. This work was supported by National Science Foundation (CMDITR program DMR 0120967, MRSEC program DMR 0820382, and DMR-0706031), Department of Energy (DE-FG02-06ER46293 and PECASE), and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech Research Foundation, COE Cutting Edge Research Award, and COPE graduate fellowship).

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Correspondence to Elisa Riedo .

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Wang, D., Kodali, V.K., Curtis, J.E., Riedo, E. (2011). Nanofabrication of Functional Nanostructures by Thermochemical Nanolithography. In: Tseng, A. (eds) Tip-Based Nanofabrication. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-9899-6_7

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