Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire

  • Azmeh Shahid
  • Kate Wilkinson
  • Shai Marcu
  • Colin M. Shapiro


Consisting of 19 items, the scale was developed to assess individual differences in morningness and eveningness – the degree to which respondents are active and alert at certain times of day. Scale items query preferences in sleep and waking times, and subjective “peak” times at which respondents feel their best.


  1. 1.
    Horne, J. A., & Östberg, O. (1976). A self-assessment questionnaire to determine morningness-eveningness in human circadian rhythms. International Journal of Chronobiology, 4, 97–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Smith, C. S., Reilly, C., & Midkiff, K. (1989). Evaluation of three circadian rhythm questionnaires with suggestions for an improved measure of morningness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74(5), 728–738.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Neubauer, A. C. (1992). Psychometric comparison of two circadian rhythm questionnaires and their relationship with personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 13(2), 125–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Representative Studies Using Scale

  1. Ayalon, L., Borodkin, K., Dishon, L., Kanety, H., & Dagan, Y. (2007). Circadian rhythm sleep disorders following mild traumatic brain injury. Neurology, 68(14), 1136–1140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Rybak, Y. E., McNeely, H. E., Mackenzie, B. E., Jain, U. R., & Levitan, R. D. (2006). An open trial of light therapy in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 67(10), 1527–1535.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Azmeh Shahid
    • 1
  • Kate Wilkinson
    • 1
  • Shai Marcu
    • 2
  • Colin M. Shapiro
    • 3
  1. 1.University of Toronto The Youthdale Child and Adolescent Sleep CentreTorontoCanada
  2. 2.University of Toronto The Youthdale Child and Adolescent Sleep CentreTorontoCanada
  3. 3.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Toronto The Youthdale Child and Adolescent Sleep CentreTorontoCanada

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