Espie Sleep Disturbance Questionnaire (SDQ)

  • Azmeh ShahidEmail author
  • Kate Wilkinson
  • Shai Marcu
  • Colin M. Shapiro


The SDQ is a 12-item scale designed to evaluate subjective experiences of insomnia. An analysis conducted by Espie and colleagues [1] revealed the four factors assessed by the scale: attributions regarding restlessness/agitation, attributions concerning mental overactivity, attributions concerning the consequences of insomnia, and attributions concerning lack of sleep readiness.


  1. 1.
    Espie, C. A., Inglis, S. J., Harvey, L., & Tessier, S. (2000). Insomniacs’ attributions: psychometric properties of the dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep scale and the sleep disturbance scale. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 48(2), 141–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Espie, C. A., Brooks, D. N., & Lindsay, W. R. (1989). An evaluation of tailored psychological treatment of insomnia. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychology, 20, 143–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Representative Studies Using Scale

  1. Harvey, A. G., Schmidt, D. A., Scarnà, A., Semler, C. N., & Goodwin, G. M. (2005). Sleep-related functioning in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder, patients with insomnia, and subjects without sleep problems. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(1), 50–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Watts, F. N., Coyle, K., & East, M. P. (1994). The contribution of worry to insomnia. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 33(2), 211–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Azmeh Shahid
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kate Wilkinson
    • 1
  • Shai Marcu
    • 2
  • Colin M. Shapiro
    • 3
  1. 1.University of Toronto The Youthdale Child and Adolescent Sleep CentreTorontoCanada
  2. 2.University of Toronto The Youthdale Child and Adolescent Sleep CentreTorontoCanada
  3. 3.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Toronto The Youthdale Child and Adolescent Sleep CentreTorontoCanada

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