Skip to main content

What the Walrus and the Carpenter Did Not Talk About: Maritime Archaeology and the Near Future of Energy

  • 1245 Accesses

Abstract

This chapter is concerned with the entanglement of energy resources and archaeology over the next 30 years and beyond. It considers the impact of the global energy crisis upon the marine archaeological resource, and by default, it also considers questions of climate change and archaeology. The early–mid twenty-first century is set to become the age of conflict over dwindling resources, especially hydrocarbons, and also (one hopes), the age of the expansion of renewable energy replacements for hydrocarbons. In this conflict, the seas and oceans will become the primary global battleground of both governments and industries, since these are the last great (largely) unexploited areas of the world. Together, such immediate-term, global geopolitical events look likely to present a new challenge to the archaeological community that will confront it with serious questions about cultural heritage research, resource and rescue priorities, public access and communication, and professional ethics.

Keywords

  • Cultural Heritage
  • Continental Shelf
  • Archaeological Site
  • Cultural Landscape
  • Exclusive Economic Zone

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-9881-1_13
  • Chapter length: 26 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   69.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-1-4419-9881-1
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   89.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   109.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig.  13.1
Fig.  13.2
Fig.  13.3
Fig.  13.4
Fig.  13.5

Notes

  1. 1.

    Examples of guidance include Joint Nautical Archaeology Policy Committee (1995), English Heritage (1996), British Marine Aggregates Producers Association and English Heritage (2003), English Heritage (2003b), British Marine Aggregates Producers Association and English Heritage (2005a, b, c, 2006), English Heritage (2006) and Wessex Archaeology (2007). Examples of strategic resource assessment include Joint Nautical Archaeology Policy Committee (1989), Fulford et al. (1997), Historic Scotland (1999), Ministry of Defence (2001), Oxley and O’Regan (2001), Davidson (2002), Roberts and Trow (2002), Dawson (2003), Flemming (2002, 2003, 2004b, 2005).

References

  • Allen, J., Golson, J. and Jones, R. (eds.) 1977 Sunda and Sahul:  Prehistoric Studies in Southeast Asia, Melanesia and Australia. London:  Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Allen, J. and O’Connell, J. F. 2003 The Long And The Short Of It: Archaeological Approaches to Determining When Humans First Colonised Australia and New Guinea. Australian Archaeology 57: 5–18.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Anonymous, 2004 Nation Hurries to Salvage Undersea Cultural Relics, China Daily (2nd July 2004).

    Google Scholar 

  • Avery, W. H. and Chih Wu 1994 Renewable Energy from the Ocean: a Guide to OTEC. Oxford: OUP.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bailey, G. 2004 The Wider Significance of Submerged Archaeological Sites and Their Relevance to World Prehistory. In N. C. Flemming Submarine Prehistoric Archaeology of the North Sea: Research Priorities and Collaboration with Industry. London: Council for British Archaeology Research Report 141. 3–10.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bass, G. F. 1966 Archaeology Under Water. London: Thames and Hudson.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bass, G. F. (ed.) 1972 A History of Seafaring Based on Underwater Archaeology. London: Thames and Hudson.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bass, G. F. (ed.) 1988 Ships and Shipwrecks of the Americas: A History Based on Underwater Archaeology. London: Thames and Hudson.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bass, G. F. (ed.) 2005 Beneath the Seven Seas: Adventures with the Institute of Nautical Archaeology. London: Thames and Hudson.

    Google Scholar 

  • Begnaze Pty. Ltd. 2004 Environmental Impact Assessment for the Proposed Blacktip Gas Project: Archaeology and Heritage. Wanguri: Begnaze Pty. Ltd.

    Google Scholar 

  • Blackman, D. J. 1973 Evidence of Sea Level Change in Ancient Harbours and Coastal Installations. In D. J. Blackman (ed.) Marine Archaeology. Bristol: Colston Papers 23. 115–39.

    Google Scholar 

  • Blackman, D. J. 1982a Ancient Harbours in the Mediterranean, Part 1, International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 11(2): 79–104.

    Google Scholar 

  • Blackman, D. J. 1982b Ancient Harbours in the Mediterranean, Part 2, International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 11(3): 185–212.

    Google Scholar 

  • Blavatsky, V. D. 1972 Submerged Sectors of Towns on the Black Sea Coast. In Underwater Archaeology, a Nascent Discipline. Paris: UNESCO. 115–22.

    Google Scholar 

  • British Marine Aggregates Producers Association and English Heritage, 2003 Marine Aggregate Dredging and the Historic Environment. Salisbury: Wessex Archaeology.

    Google Scholar 

  • British Marine Aggregates Producers Association and English Heritage, 2005a Protocol for Reporting Finds of Archaeological Interest. Salisbury: Wessex Archaeology.

    Google Scholar 

  • British Marine Aggregates Producers Association and English Heritage, 2005b Protocol for Reporting Finds of Archaeological Interest: Site Champion’s Notes for Vessels. Salisbury: Wessex Archaeology.

    Google Scholar 

  • British Marine Aggregates Producers Association and English Heritage, 2005c Protocol for Reporting Finds of Archaeological Interest: Site Champion’s Notes for Wharves. Salisbury: Wessex Archaeology.

    Google Scholar 

  • British Wind Energy Association, 2005 Outline Briefing: Planning for Wind Energy - Informing Local Development Documents. London: British Wind Energy Association.

    Google Scholar 

  • Burroughs, W. J. 2005 Climate Change in Prehistory: the End of the Reign of Chaos. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • British Marine Aggregates Producers Association and English Heritage, 2006 Protocol for Reporting Finds of Archaeological Interest. Salisbury: Wessex Archaeology.

    Google Scholar 

  • Campbell, C. J. and Laherrère, J. H. 1998 The End of Cheap Oil, Scientific American (March 1998): 78–83.

    Google Scholar 

  • Carroll, L. 1872 The Walrus and the Carpenter, in Through the Looking-Glass and What Alice Found There. London: Macmillan. 75–81.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cassar, M. 2005 Climate Change and the Historic Environment. London: University College London, Centre for Sustainable Heritage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cassar, M., Young, C., Weighell, T., Sheppard, D., Bomhard, B. and Rosabal, P. 2006 Predicting and Managing the Effects of Climate Change on World Heritage: A Joint Report from the World Heritage Centre to the 30 thSession of the World Heritage Committee (Vilnius, 2006). Paris: UNESCO World Heritage Centre.

    Google Scholar 

  • Colcutt, S. 1999 The Setting of Cultural Heritage Features, Journal of Planning and Environment Law (June): 498–513.

    Google Scholar 

  • Clausen, C. J., Brooks, H. K. and Wesolowsky, A. B. 1975 The Early Man Site at Warm Mineral Springs, Florida, Journal of Field Archaeology 2(3): 191–213.

    Google Scholar 

  • Clausen, C. J., Cohen, A. D., Emiliani, C., Holman, J. A. and Stipp, J. J. 1979 Little Salt Spring, Florida: a Unique Underwater Site, Science 203: 609–14.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • CLG 2004 Planning Policy Statement 22: Planning for Renewable Energy. London: HMSO.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cook, P. J., Fannin, N. G. T. and Hull, J. H. 1992a The Physical Exploitation of Shallow Seas. In K. J. Hsü and J. Theide (eds.) Use and Misuse of the Seafloor. Chichester: Wiley. 157–80.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cook, P. J., Haq, B. U., Heath, G. R., Hyland, J. L., Jennerjahn, T. C., Johnston, C. S., Skei, J. M., Summerhayes, C. P. and Takahashi, P. K. 1992b Group Report: Offshore Petroleum Hydrocarbon Exploitation – Reserves, Impacts and Alternatives. In K. J. Hsü and J. Theide (eds.) Use and Misuse of the Seafloor. Chichester: Wiley. 337–56.

    Google Scholar 

  • Coulter, D. Y. 1996 South China Sea Fisheries: Countdown to Calamity, Contemporary Southeast Asia 17(4).

    Google Scholar 

  • Davidson, A. (ed.) 2002 The Coastal Archaeology of Wales. York: Council for British Archaeology.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dawson, T. (ed.) 2003 Coastal Archaeology and Erosion in Scotland. Edinburgh: Historic Scotland.

    Google Scholar 

  • Delgado, J. and Murphy, L. (eds.) 1991 The Archaeology of the Atomic Bomb. Santa Fe: National Parks Service.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dillehay, T. D. 2000 The Settlement of the Americas: A New Prehistory. New York: Perseus.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dixon, E. J. 1999 Bones, Boats and Bison: Archaeology and the First Colonisation of Western North America. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dortch, C. 1991 Rottnest and Garden Island Prehistory and the Archaeological Potential of the Adjacent Continental Shelf, Western Australia. Australian Archaeology 33: 38–43.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dortch, C. 1997a Prehistory Down Under: Archaeological Investigations of Submerged Aboriginal Sites at Lake Jasper, Western Australia, Antiquity 71(271): 116–23.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dortch, C. 1997b New Perceptions of the Chronology and Development of Aboriginal Fishing in South-Western Australia, World Archaeology 29(1): 15–35.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dortch, C. E., Henderson, G. J. and May, S. R. 1990 Prehistoric Human Occupation Sites Submerged in Lake Jasper, South-Western Australia, Bulletin of the Australian Institute for Maritime Archaeology 14(1): 43–52.

    Google Scholar 

  • Drabble, R. 2002 Legacy of the Hidden Enemy Beneath. The Marine Scientist 1: 50–51.

    Google Scholar 

  • Easton, N. A. 1988 Shoreline Subsidence and Rising Sea Levels: Implications for Prehistoric Underwater Archaeology on the Northwest Coast. Paper presented to the Canadian Archaeological Association Annual Meetings, May 14th 1988, Whistler, British Columbia.

    Google Scholar 

  • Easton N. A. 1990 The Accelerated Inundation of Coastal Archaeological Resources in the Pacific Northwest - the Greenhouse Effect and the Development of Underwater Archaeology, Proceedings of the Circum-Pacific Prehistory Conference, Volume 5, Session X: Future Orientated Pacific Prehistory Research.

    Google Scholar 

  • English Heritage, 1996 England’s Coastal Heritage. London: English Heritage.

    Google Scholar 

  • English Heritage, 2003a Historic Military Aviation Sites. London: English Heritage.

    Google Scholar 

  • English Heritage, 2003b Coastal Defence and the Historic Environment. London: English Heritage.

    Google Scholar 

  • English Heritage, 2006 Marine Archaeology Legislation Project. Wolverhampton: University of Wolverhampton School of Legal Studies.

    Google Scholar 

  • Exon, N. F. (ed.) 1992 Group Report: What is the Resource Potential of the Deep Ocean? In K. J. Hsü and J. Theide (eds.) Use and Misuse of the Seafloor. Chichester: Wiley. 7–27.

    Google Scholar 

  • EUREC Agency 1996 The Future for Renewable Energy:  Prospects and Directions. London: James and James.

    Google Scholar 

  • EUREC Agency 2002 The Future for Renewable Energy:  Prospects and Directions 2. London: James and James.

    Google Scholar 

  • European Environment Agency, 2004 Impacts of Europe’s Changing Climate: an Indicator Based Assessment. Brussels: European Environment Agency.

    Google Scholar 

  • Faught, M. K. 2002–04 Submerged Paleo-Indian and Archaic Sites of the Big Bend, Florida, Journal of Field Archaeology 29(3–4): 273–90.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Firth, A. 2006a Marine Aggregates and Prehistory. In R. Grenier, D. Nutley and I. Cochran (eds.). Underwater Cultural Heritage at Risk: Managing Natural and Human Impacts: Heritage at Risk Special Edition. München: ICOMOS. 8–10.

    Google Scholar 

  • Firth, A. 2006b Old Shipwrecks and New Dredging: An Elizabethan Ship in the Thames. In R. Grenier, D. Nutley and I. Cochran (eds.). Underwater Cultural Heritage at Risk: Managing Natural and Human Impacts: Heritage at Risk Special Edition. München: ICOMOS. 35–37.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fischer, A. 2004 Submerged Stone Age – Danish Examples and North Sea Potential. In N. Flemming (ed.) Submarine Prehistoric Archaeology of the North Sea. York: Council for British Archaeology. 21–36.

    Google Scholar 

  • Flatman, J. 2003 Cultural Biographies, Cognitive Landscapes and Dirty Old Bits of Boat. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 32(2): 143–57.

    Google Scholar 

  • Flatman, J. 2007a The Ethics and Practice of Maritime Archaeology, Part I, Public Archaeology 6(2): 77–97.

    Google Scholar 

  • Flatman, J. 2007b The Ethics and Practice of Maritime Archaeology, Part II, Public Archaeology 6(3): 163–76.

    Google Scholar 

  • Flatman, J. 2009 A Climate of Fear: Recent British Policy and Management of Coastal Heritage, Public Archaeology 8(1): 3–19.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Flatman, J., Staniforth, M., Nutley, D. and Shefi, D. 2005 Submerged Cultural Landscapes, Unpublished paper given at the Understanding Cultural Landscapes Symposium, 11th – 15th July 2005, School of Humanities, Flinders University, Australia.

    Google Scholar 

  • Flemming, N. C. 1962 Sunken Cities and Forgotten Wrecks. In G. E. R. Deacon (ed.) Oceans: An Atlas-History of Man’s Exploration of the Deep. London: Crescent Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Flemming, N. C. 1972 Cities in the Sea. New York: Doubleday.

    Google Scholar 

  • Flemming, N. C. 1980 Structures Under Water. In K. Muckelroy (ed.) Archaeology Under Water. London: McGraw-Hill. 164–75.

    Google Scholar 

  • Flemming, N. C. 1982 Sirius Expedition - Cootamundra Shoals Survey 1982: Expedition Reports.

    Google Scholar 

  • Flemming, N. 2002 The Scope of Strategic Environmental Assessment of Continental Shelf Areas SEA 3 and SEA 2. London: UK Department of Trade and Industry Technical Report.

    Google Scholar 

  • Flemming, N. 2003 The Scope of Strategic Environmental Assessment of Continental Shelf Area SEA 4. London: UK Department of Trade and Industry Technical Report.

    Google Scholar 

  • Flemming, N. (ed.) 2004a Submarine Prehistoric Archaeology of the North Sea: Research Priorities and Collaboration with Industry. York: Council for British Archaeology.

    Google Scholar 

  • Flemming, N. 2004b The Scope of Strategic Environmental Assessment of Continental Shelf Area SEA 5. London: UK Department of Trade and Industry Technical Report.

    Google Scholar 

  • Flemming, N. 2005 The Scope of Strategic Environmental Assessment of Continental Shelf Area SEA 6. London: UK Department of Trade and Industry Technical Report.

    Google Scholar 

  • Flemming, N., Bailey, G., Courtillot, V., King, G., Lambeck, K., Ryerson, F. and Vita-Finzi, C. 2003 Coastal and Marine Palaeo-Environments and Human Dispersal Points Across the Africa-Eurasia Boundary. In C. A. Brebbia and T. Gambin (eds.) The Maritime and Underwater Heritage. Southampton: Wessex Institute of Technology. 61–74.

    Google Scholar 

  • Frost, H. 1969 On the Plotting of Vast and Partly Submerged Harbour Works from Aerial and Underwater Photographs. In P. Throckmorton et al Surveying in Archaeology Under Water. London: Colt Archaeological Institute Monographs 5.

    Google Scholar 

  • Frost, H. 1972 Ancient Harbours and Anchorages in the Eastern Mediterranean. In Underwater Archaeology, a Nascent Discipline. Paris: UNESCO. 95–114.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fulford, M., Champion, T. and Long, A. 1997 England’s Coastal Heritage. London: English Heritage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Furlow, W. 1998 Ultra-Deepwater Plays Still Face Stiff Challenges, Offshore (December): 34.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gaffney, V., Fitch, S. and Smith, D. 2009 Europe’s Lost World: The Rediscovery of Doggerland. York: Council for British Archaeology.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gaffney, V., Thomson, K. and Fitch, S. (eds.) 2007 Mapping Doggerland: the Mesolithic Landscape of the Southern North Sea. Oxford: Archaeopress.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gallagher, M. G. 1994 China’s Illusory Threat to the South China Sea, International Security 19(1): 171–73.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gifford, J. A. 1990–91 The First Floridians: Underwater Archaeology at Little Salt Spring, Context 9(1–2): 16–18

    Google Scholar 

  • Heinberg, R. 2003 The Party’s Over: Oil, War and the Fate of Industrial Societies. Forrest View: Claireview.

    Google Scholar 

  • Historic Scotland, 1999 Conserving the Underwater Heritage. Edinburgh: Historic Scotland.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hoffecker, J. F. and Elias, S. A. 2003 Environment and Archaeology in Beringia, Evolutionary Anthropology 12: 34–49.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hoffecker, J. F. 2005 A Prehistory of the North: Human Settlement of the Higher Latitudes. Camden: Rutgers University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hopkins, D. M. (ed.) 1967 The Bering Land Bridge. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hsü, K. J. and Theide, J (eds.) 1992 Use and Misuse of the Seafloor. Chichester: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hultén, E. 1937. Outline of the History of Arctic and Boreal Biota during the Quaternary Period. Stockholm: Bokforlags Aktiebolaget Thule.

    Google Scholar 

  • International Energy Agency, 1996. Global Offshore Oil Production: Prospects to 2000. Paris: International Energy Agency.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jenkins, G. J., Perry, M. C. and Prior, M. J. 2007 The Climate of the United Kingdom and Recent Trends. Exeter: UK Meteorological Office Hadley Centre.

    Google Scholar 

  • Joint Nautical Archaeology Policy Committee, 1989. Heritage at Sea: Proposal for the Better Protection of Archaeological Sites Underwater. London: National Maritime Museum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Joint Nautical Archaeology Policy Committee, 1995 Code of Practice for Seabed Developers. London: English Heritage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Klare, M. 2001 Resource Wars: the New Landscape of Global Conflict. New York: Henry Holt.

    Google Scholar 

  • Krauss, C., Myers, S. L., Revkin, A. C. and Romero, S. 2005 As Polar Ice Turns to Water, Dreams of Treasure Abound, New York Times (Monday, October 10, 2005).

    Google Scholar 

  • Land Use Consultants, 2005 Barriers to Commissioning Renewable Energy Projects – Final Report. London: Land Use Consultants, on Behalf of the Renewables Advisory Board and Department for Trade and Industry.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lenihan, D. (ed.) 1989 USS Arizona Memorial and Pearl Harbour National Historic Landmark. Santa Fe: National Parks Service.

    Google Scholar 

  • Long, D., Graham, C. and Stevenson, A. 2004 Existing Resources of Acoustic and Sedimentary Sample Data for Analysing the Landscape for Human Occupation in the North Sea. In N. Flemming (ed.) Submarine Prehistoric Archaeology of the North Sea: Research Priorities and Collaboration with Industry. York: Council for British Archaeology. 99–101.

    Google Scholar 

  • Manley, J. E. and Foley, B. 2004 Deep Frontiers: Ocean Exploration in the 20th Century. In D. Finamore (ed.) Maritime History as World History. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. 82–101.

    Google Scholar 

  • Marx, R. F. 1972 The Submerged Remains of Port Royal, Jamaica. In Underwater Archaeology, a Nascent Discipline. Paris: UNESCO. 139–46.

    Google Scholar 

  • Masser, P. 2006 Environmental Impact Assessment of Windfarms: Cultural Heritage and the Problem of ‘Setting’. Edinburgh: Headland Archaeology.

    Google Scholar 

  • Metz, B., Davidson, O., de Coninck, H., Loos, M. and Meyer, L. (eds.) 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage. Brussels, Special Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Miles, E. L. 1999 The Concept of Ocean Governance: Evolution Toward the 21st Century and the Principle of Sustainable Ocean Use, Coastal Management 27(1): 1–30.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ministry of Defence, 2001 Military Maritime Graves and the Protection of Military Remains Act 1986. London: Ministry of Defence.

    Google Scholar 

  • Muckelroy, K. 1978 Maritime Archaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Muckelroy, K. (ed.) 1980 Archaeology Under Water: An Atlas of theWorld’s Submerged Sites. New York: McGraw Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  • National Trust, 2005 Shifting Shores: Living with a Changing Coastline. London: National Trust.

    Google Scholar 

  • National Trust, 2006 Forecast? Changeable! London: National Trust.

    Google Scholar 

  • Noreng, O. 2002 Crude Power: Politics and the Oil Market. London: Tauris.

    Google Scholar 

  • Northern Territory Government 2005 Blacktip Gas Project: Environmental Impact Assessment Report and Recommendations. Darwin: Northern Territory Government Office of the Environment and Heritage, Report No. 50.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nutley, D. 2006 The Last Global Warming? Archaeological Survival in Australia Waters. Flinders University Maritime Arch. Monograph Series No. 10, Adelaide.

    Google Scholar 

  • Oxley, I. and O’Regan, D. 2001 The Marine Archaeological Resource. Reading: Institute of Field Archaeologists.

    Google Scholar 

  • Porcasi, J. F. and Fujita, H. 2000 The Dolphin Hunters: A Specialized Prehistoric Maritime Adaptation in the Southern California Channel Islands and Baja California, American Antiquity 65(3): 543–66.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Purdy, B. A. 1991 The Art and Archaeology of Florida’s Wetlands. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Roberts, P. and Trow, S. 2002 Taking to the Water: English Heritage’s Initial Policy for the Management of Maritime Archaeology in England. London: English Heritage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Roberts, P. 2004 The End of Oil: the Decline of the Petroleum Economy and the Rise of the New Energy Order. London: Bloomsbury.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rule, N. 1986 Some Techniques for Cost-Effective Three-Dimensional Mapping of Underwater Sites. In Computer Applications in Archaeology 1985. London: UCL Press. 51–56.

    Google Scholar 

  • Siddayo, C. 1978 The Offshore Petroleum Resources of Southeast Asia. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Song, Y-H. 2003 The Overall Situation in the South China Sea in the New Millennium: Before and After the September 11 Terrorist Attacks, Ocean Development & International Law 34: 229–77.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith, M. A., Spriggs, M. and Fankhauser, B. (eds.) 1993 Sahul in Review:  Pleistocene Archaeology in Australia, New Guinea and Island Melanesia. Canberra:  Department of Prehistory, Research School of Pacific Studies Occasional Papers in Prehistory No. 24.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stern, N. 2006 The Economics of Climate Change. London: HM Treasury.

    Google Scholar 

  • Throckmorton, P. (ed.) 1987 The Sea Remembers: Shipwrecks and Archaeology. London: Chancellor.

    Google Scholar 

  • UNESCO, 1972 Underwater Archaeology: A Nascent Discipline. Paris: UNESCO.

    Google Scholar 

  • U.S. Geological Survey, 1998 Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, 1002 Area, Petroleum Assessment. Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey.

    Google Scholar 

  • U.S. Geological Survey, 2005a Economics of 1998 U.S. Geological Survey’s 1002 Area Regional Assessment: An Economic Update. Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey.

    Google Scholar 

  • U.S. Geological Survey, 2005b Oil and Gas Resource Assessment of the Central North Slope, Alaska. Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey.

    Google Scholar 

  • Valencia, M. J. 1985 Southeast Asian Seas: Oil Under Troubled Waters. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Webb, S. 2006 The First Boat People. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • West, F. H. 1981 The Archaeology of Beringia. New York:  Columbia University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • West, F. H. (ed.) 1996 American Beginnings:  the Prehistory and Palaeoecology of Beringia. Chicago:  University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wessex Archaeology, 2005 Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) 6: Irish Sea Maritime Archaeology. London: Department of Trade and Industry.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wessex Archaeology, 2006 Historic Environment Guidance Note for the Offshore Renewable Energy Sector. London: Collaborative Offshore Wind Research into the Environment.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wessex Archaeology, 2007 Historic Environment Guidance for the Renewable Energy Sector. Salisbury: Wessex Archaeology.

    Google Scholar 

  • White, J. P and O’Connell, J. F. 1982 A Prehistory of Australia, New Guinea and Sahul. London: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Williams, B. 2001 Commercial Developments and their Impact on Maritime Heritage: the Northern Ireland Experience, The International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 30(1): 5–11.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Zhang Wei, 2006 The Problems Encountered in the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage, Proceedings of the Scientific Symposium ‘Monuments and Sites in their Setting - Conserving Cultural Heritage in Changing Townscapes and Landscapes’, Xi’an, China, 17th – 21st October 2005.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Joe Flatman .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Flatman, J. (2011). What the Walrus and the Carpenter Did Not Talk About: Maritime Archaeology and the Near Future of Energy. In: Rockman, M., Flatman, J. (eds) Archaeology in Society. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-9881-1_13

Download citation