Advertisement

Nanoindentation of Thin Films and Small Volumes of Materials

  • Anthony C. Fischer-CrippsEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Mechanical Engineering Series book series (MES)

Abstract

One of the most popular applications of nanoindentation is the determination of the mechanical properties of thin films. In nanoindentation tests, the properties of the film may be measured without removing the film from the substrate as is done in other types of testing. The spatial distribution of properties, in both lateral and depth dimensions, may be measured, and a wide variety of films are amenable to the technique, from ion-implanted surfaces to optical coatings and polymer films. Apart from testing films in-situ, nanoindentation techniques can also be used for films made as free-standing microbeams or membranes [1].

Keywords

Acoustic Emission Plastic Zone Energy Release Rate Scratch Test Strain Energy Release Rate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    T.P. Weihs, S. Hong, J.C. Bravman, and W.D. Nix, “Mechanical deflection of cantilever microbeams: A new technique for testing the mechanical properties of thin films,” J. Mater. Res. 3 5, 1988, 931–942.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    J.L. Hay, M.E. O’Hern, and W.C. Oliver, “The importance of contact radius for substrate-independent property measurement of thin films,” Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 522, 1998, pp. 27–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M.G.D. El-Sherbiney and J. Halling, “The Herztian contact of surfaces covered with metallic films,” Wear, 40, 1976, pp. 325–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    J.A. Ogilvy, “A parametric elastic model for indentation testing of thin films,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 26, 1993, pp. 2123–2131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    R.B. King, “Elastic analysis of some punch problems for a layered medium,” Int. J. Solids Struct. 23 12, 1987, pp. 1657–1664.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    M.F. Doerner and W.D. Nix, “A method of interpreting the data from depth-sensing indentation instruments,” J. Mater. Res. 1 4, 1986, pp. 601–609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    H. Gao, C-H Chiu, and J. Lee, “Elastic contact versus indentation modeling of multi-layered materials,” Int. J. Solids Struct. 29 20, 1992, pp. 2471–2492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Y-G Jung, B.R. Lawn, M. Martyniuk, H. Huang and X.Z. Hu, “Evaluation of elastic modulus and hardness of thin films by nanoindentation,” J. Mater. Res. 19 10, 2004, pp. 1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    N. Schwarzer, M. Whittling, M. Swain, and F. Richter, “The analytical solution of the contact problem of spherical indenters on layered materials: Application for the investigation of TiN films on silicon,” Thin Solid Films, 270 1-2, 1995, pp. 371–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    N. Schwarzer, “Coating design due to analytical modelling of mechanical contact problems on multilayer systems,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 133, 2000, pp. 397–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    T. Chudoba, N. Schwarzer, F. Richter, “Determination of elastic properties of thin films by indentation measurements with a spherical indenter,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 127, 2000, pp. 9–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    A. Perriot and E. Barthel, “Elastic contact to a coated half-space: Effective elastic modulus and real penetration,” J. Mater. Res. 10 2, 2004, pp. 600–608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    J.Li and T.W. Chou, “Elastic field of a thin film/substrate system under axisymmetric loading,” Int. J. Solids Struct. 34, 1997, pp. 4463–4478.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    H. Bückle, in J.W. Westbrook and H. Conrad, eds. The Science of Hardness Testing and its Applications, American Society for Metals, Metals Park, OH, 1973, pp. 453–491.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    B. Jonsson and S. Hogmark, “Hardness measurements of thin films,” Thin Solid Films, 114, 1984, pp. 257–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    P.J. Burnett and D.S. Rickerby, “The mechanical properties of wear-resistance coatings I: Modelling of hardness behaviour,” Thin Solid Films, 148, 1987, pp. 41–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    P.J. Burnett and D.S. Rickerby, “The mechanical properties of wear-resistance coatings II: Experimental studies and interpretation of hardness,” Thin Solid Films, 148, 1987, pp. 51–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    T.Y. Tsui, C.A. Ross, and G.M. Pharr, “A method for making substrate-independent hardness measurements of soft metallic films on hard substrates by nanoindentation,” J. Mater. Res. 18 6, 2003, pp. 1383–1391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    A.K. Bhattacharya and W.D. Nix, “Finite element simulation of indentation experiments,” Int. J. Solids Struct. 24 12, 1988, pp. 1287–1298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    D. Stone, W.R. LaFontaine, P. Alexopolous, T.-W. Wu, and Che-Yu Li, “An investigation of hardness and adhesion of sputter-deposited aluminium on silicon by utilizing a continuous indentation test,” J. Mater. Res. 3 1, 1988, pp. 141–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    D. Chicot and J. Lesage, “Absolute hardness of films and coatings,” Thin Solid Films, 254, 1995, pp. 123–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    A.M. Korunsky, M.R. McGurk, S.J. Bull, and T.F. Page, “On the hardness of coated systems, Surf. Coat. Technol. 99, 1998, pp. 171–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    J.R. Tuck, A.M. Korsunsky, R.I. Davidson, S.J. Bull, and D.M. Elliott, “Modelling of the hardness of electroplated nickel coatings on copper substrates,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 127, 2000, pp. 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    E.S. Puchi-Cabrera, J.A. Berrios, and D.G. Teer, “On the computation of the absolute hardness of thin solid films,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 157, 2002, pp. 185–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    E.S. Puchi-Cabrera, “A new model for the computation of the composite hardness of coated systems,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 160, 2002, pp. 177–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    S.J. Bull, “Modelling of the mechanical and tribological properties of coatings and surface treatments,” Mat. Res. Symp. Proc. 750, 2003, pp. Y6.1.1–Y6.1.12.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wangyang Ni and Yang-Tse Cheng, “Modelling conical indentation in homogenous materials and in hard films on soft substrates,” J. Mater. Res. 20, 2, 2005, pp. 521–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    G.G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. R. Soc. A9, 1909, pp. 172–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    D.B. Marshall and A.G. Evans, “Measurement of adherence of residually stressed thin films by indentation mechanics of interface delamination,” J. Appl. Phys. 56 10, 1984, pp. 2632–2638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    L.G. Rosenfeld, J.E. Ritter, T.J. Lardner, and M.R. Lin, “Use of the microindentation technique for determining interfacial fracture energy,” J. Appl. Phys. 67 1990, pp. 3291–3296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    M.D. Thouless, Acta Metall. 36, 1988, pp. 3131Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    M.V. Swain and J. Mencik, “Mechanical property characterization of thin films using spherical tipped indenters,” Thin Solid Films, 253, 1994, pp. 204–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    A.J. Whitehead and T.F. Page, “Nanoindentation studies of thin film coated systems,” Thin Solid Films, 220, 1992, pp. 277–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    M.D. Thouless, “An analysis of spalling in the microscratch test,” Eng. Fract. Mech. 61, 1998, pp. 75–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    M.D. Kriese, N.R. Moody, and W.W. Gerberich, “Effects of annealing and interlayers on the adhesion energy of copper thin films to SiO2/Si substrates,” Acta Mater. 46, 1998, pp. 6623–6630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    A.A. Volinsky, N.R. Moody, and W.W. Gerberich, “Superlayer residual stress effect on the indentation adhesion measurements,” Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 594, 2000, pp. 383–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    X.F. Li, “Effects of an elastic substrate on the interfacial adhesion of thin films,” Surface and Coatings Technology, 200 16-17, 2006, pp. 5003–5008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    J. Sekler, P.A. Steinmann, and H.E. Hintermann, “The scratch test: Different critical load determination techniques,” Surface and Coatings Technology, 36, 1988, pp. 519–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    N. Gane and J. Skinner, “The friction and scratch deformation of metals on a micro scale,” Wear, 24, 1973, pp. 207–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    P.A. Steinmann, Y. Tardy, and H.E. Hintermann, “Adhesion testing by the scratch test method: The influence of intrinsic and extrinsic parameters on the critical load,” Thin Solid Films, 154, 1987, pp. 333–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    V.D. Jardret and W.C. Oliver, “Viscoelastic behaviour of polymer films during scratch test: A quantitative analysis,” Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 594, 2000, pp. 251–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    S. Enders, P. Grau, and G. Berg, “Mechanical characterization of surfaces by nanotribological measurements of sliding and abrasive terms,” Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 594, 2000, pp. 531–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    F.P. Bowden and D. Tabor, The Friction and Lubrication of Solids, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1950.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    J.W. Leggoe, “Determination of the elastic modulus of microscale ceramic particles via nanoindentation,” J.Mater.Res. 19 8, 2004, pp. 2437–2447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fischer-Cripps Laboratories Pty Ltd.Killarney HeightsAustralia

Personalised recommendations