A Multiparametric Imaging of Cellular Coenzymes for Monitoring Metabolic and Mitochondrial Activities

Chapter
Part of the Reviews in Fluorescence book series (RFLU, volume 2010)

Abstract

Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2) are electron carriers that play important roles in a wide range of metabolic activities and mitochondrial functions in eukaryotic cells. NADH and FAD are naturally fluorescent with distinct illumination/emission wavelengths for selective detection. Their autofluorescence is also sensitive to protein binding and local environment. As a result, these intracellular coenzymes have potential as intrinsic biomarkers for a noninvasive imaging of metabolic activities and oxidation–reduction reactions in living cells either in vitro, ex vivo, or in vivo. This chapter highlights recent findings of these coenzymes as natural biomarkers of metabolic and mitochondrial activities with an emphasis on a multiparametric imaging approach.

Keywords

Anisotropy Respiration Coherence Pyruvate Cyanide 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The author thanks his former student, Dr. Qianru Yu, for her help in obtaining some of the data used in this chapter. Figure 3 is a courtesy of Dr. Karl Kasischke (University of Rochester, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY) and published here with permission. This work was partially supported by the National Institute of Health (AG030949) and the National Science Foundation (MCB0718741). The editorial comments by Dr. Shelley Smith (University of Minnesota-Duluth) are deeply appreciated.

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and BiochemistrySwenson College of Science and Engineering, The University of Minnesota DuluthDuluthUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacy Practice and Pharmaceutical SciencesCollege of Pharmacy, The University of Minnesota DuluthDuluthUSA

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