Quality pp 159-192 | Cite as

Summary Measurement: The Role of Categories or Domains

Chapter

Abstract

The focus of this chapter is on how the constant stream of information that a person experiences every day is summarized into units that are used to communicate or provide the basis for quantification. Two methods are described: those based on the person using cognitive processes to form categories of information and those that involve the investigator using statistical procedures to create domains. In addition, I describe how the content (modular or nonmodular) of these summary statements can vary and what it implies about the summary measure formed. Finally, I illustrate how differences in the content of a domain and the quality-of-life assessment used (generic or disease specific) contribute to the predictive ability of a quantitative assessment.

Keywords

Fatigue Depression Schizophrenia Coherence Diarrhea 

Abbreviations

ADVS

Activities of Daily Vision Scale (Manguione et al. 1992)

CAT

Computer adaptive testing

CL

Confidence limits

DSM

Diagnostic and statistical manual (American Psychiatric Association 2000)

EQ-5D

EuroQol group 5 dimensions (Brooks et al. 2003)

Generic

Generic quality-of-life assessment

HADS

Hospital Anxiety and Depressions Scale (Zigmond and Snaith 1983)

HRQWOL

Health-related quality-of-life

IRT

Item response theory

LogMAR

Log of minimal angle of resolution

PROs

Patient-reported outcomes

RSCL

Rotterdam symptom checklist (De Haes et al. 1990)

SF-36

Medical outcome study short form 36 (Ware and Sherbourne 1992)

SF-36 PFS

Physical functioning items of the SF-36

SG

Standard gamble utility measure

SG-VH

Standard gamble-visual health

SIP

Sickness Impact Scale (Bergner et al. 1981)

SVA

Snellen visual acuity

SWB

Subjective well-being

TyPE

The TyPE specification assesses visual functioning in five dimensions: (1) distance vision; (2) near vision; (3) daytime driving; (4) nighttime driving; and (5) glare

VA

Visual acuity

VF-14

Visual functioning 14 items (Steinberg et al. 1994)

Vision-Specific

Vision-specific HRQOL assessment

VR

Verbal utility report

WHO/PBD VF20

World Health Organization Standards for Vision 2003

WMC

Working memory capacity

References

  1. Allen SW, Brooks LR. (1991). Specializing the operation of a explicit rule. J Exp Psychol Gen. 120, 3–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (1994 to 2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arnold R, Ranchor AV, Sanderman R, Kempen GIJM, et al. (2004). The relative contribution of domains of quality-of-life to overall quality-of-life for different chronic diseases. Qual Life Res. 13, 883–896.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ashby FG, Alfronso-Reese LA, Turken AU, Waldron EM. (1998). A neuropsychological theory if multiple systems in category learning. Psychol Rev. 105, 442–481.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ashby FG, Ell SW. (2001). The neurobiology of category learning. Trends Cogn Sci. 5, 204–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ashby FG, Maddox WT. (2005). Human category learning. Annu Rev Psychol. 56, 149–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ashby FG, Waldron EM. (2000). The neuropsychological bases of category learning. Curr Trends Psychol Sci. 9, 10–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Austin JL. (1961). Philosophical Papers. Oxford, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Austin JL. (1962). How To Do Things With Words. Cambridge MA, Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Baddeley AD. (2002). Is working memory still working? Eur Psychol. 7, 85–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baddeley AD, Della Sala S, Papagno C, Spinnler H. (1997). Dual-task performance in dysexecutive and nondysexecutive patients with frontal lesions. NeuroPsychol. 11, 187–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bargh JA, Ferguson MJ. (2000). Beyond behaviorism: On the automaticity of higher mental processes. Psychol Bull. 126, 925–945.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Barofsky I. (1997). Functional gastrointestinal disorders: Chronic pain management. In, (Eds.), R McCallum, G Friedman and ED Jacobson Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Raven Press, New York, pp. 133–145.Google Scholar
  14. Barrett L, Tugade MM, Engle RW. (2004). Individual differences in working memory capacity and dual-process theories of the mind. Psychol Bull. 130,55–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Barsalou LW. (1983). Ad hoc categories. Mem Cogn. 11, 211–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bergner M, Bobitt RA, Carter WB, Gilson BS. (1981). The Sickness Impact Profile: Development and final revision of a health status measure. Med Care. 19, 787–805.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Birnboim S. (2003). The automatic and controlled information-processing dissociation: Is this still relevant? NeuroPsychol Rev. 13, 19–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Blashfield RK. (1986). Structural approaches to classification. In, (Eds.) T. Millon, GL Klerman. Contemporary Directions in Psychopathology: Towards the DSM-IV. New York NY:Guilford. (p. 363–379).Google Scholar
  19. Boole G. (1854/1951). An Investigation of the Laws of Thought. On Which are Founded the Mathematical Theories of Logic and Probabilities. New York NY: Reprinted by Dover Publications.Google Scholar
  20. Boroditsky L. (2001). Does language shape thought? Mandarin and English speakers conceptions of time. Cogn Psychol. 43, 1–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bott L, Hoffman AB, Murphy GL. (2007). Blocking in category learning. J Exp Psychol Gen. 136, 685–699.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bowdle BF, Gentner D. The career of metaphor. Psychol Rev. 112; 193–216, 2005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bradburn NM. (1969). The Structure of Subjective Well-being. Chicago Il: Aldine.Google Scholar
  24. Brooks R, Rabin R, de Charro F. (2003). The Measurement and Valuation of Health Status Using the EQ-5D: A European Perspective. Evidence from the EurQol BIOMED Research Programme. Dordrecht The Netherlands: Kluwer. (p. 254).Google Scholar
  25. Cain MJ. (2002). Fodor: Language, Mind and Philosophy. Cambridge UK: Polity.Google Scholar
  26. Cantril H. (1965). The Pattern of Human Concerns. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Carey S. (1985). Conceptual Change in Childhood. Cambridge MA: Bradford Press.Google Scholar
  28. Cella D. (2004). The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Lung and Lung Cancer Subscale assess quality-of-life and meaningful symptom improvement in lung cancer. Semin Oncol. 31(3 Suppl 9), 11–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cella D, Gershon R, Lai J-S, Choi S. (2007). The future of outcome measurement: Item banking, tailoring short-forms and computerized adaptive environment. Qual Life Res. 16, 133–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chartand TL, Baugh JA. (1999). The chameleon effect: The perception-behavior link and social interaction. J Personal Soc Psychol. 76, 893–910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chen J-Y. (2007). Do Chinese and English speakers think about time differently? Failure of replicating Boroditsky (2001). Cognition. 104, 427–436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chin L-H. (1972). A cross-cultural comparison of cognitive styles in Chinese and American children. Int J Psychol. 7, 235–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Chomsky N. (1988). Language and Problems of Knowledge. Cambridge MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  34. Costa PT, McCrae RR. (1992). NEO PI-R Professional Manuel. Odessa FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  35. Cronbach LJ, Meehl PE (1955). Construct validity and psychological tests. Psychol Bull. 52: 281–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cummins RA. (1996). The domains of life satisfaction: An attempt to order chaos. Soc Indic Res. 38, 303–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Datta S, Foss AJ, Grainge MJ, Gregson RM, et al. (2008). The importance of acuity, steropsis, and contrast sensitivity for health-related quality-of-life in elderly women with cataracts. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 49; 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. David KM, Ganiats TG, Miller C. (1999). Placement matters; Stability of the SF-36 EVGFP responses with varying placement of the question in the instrument. Abstract presented at the Sixth Annual Meeting of the International Society For Quality-of-life Research, Barcelona Spain, November 1999. Qual Life Res. 8, 623.Google Scholar
  39. Davidson RJ. (2004). Well-being and affective style: Neural substrates and biobehavioral correlates. Philos Trans R Soc (Biol Sect). 359, 1395–1411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. de Boer MR, Moll AC, de Vet HCW, Terwee CB, et al. (2004). Psychometric properties of vision-related health quality-of-life questionnaires: a systematic review. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 24, 257–273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. De Haes JCJH, van Knippenberg FC, Neijt JP. (1990). Measuring psychological and physical distress in cancer patients: Structure and application of the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist. Br J Cancer. 62, 1034–1038.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. DeNeve KM, Cooper H (1998). The happy personality: A meta-analysis of 137 personality traits and subjective well-being. Psychol Bull. 124, 197–229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Estes WK. (1994). Classification and Choice. New York NY: Oxford.Google Scholar
  44. Evans JSBT. (2003). In two minds: dual-process accounts of reasoning. Trends Cogn Sci. 7, 454–459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fairclough DL. (2002). Design and Analysis of Quality-of-life Studies in Clinical Trials. Boca Raton FL: Chapman & Hall/CRC.Google Scholar
  46. Fayers PM, Hand DJ. (1997). Factor analysis, causal indicators and quality-of-life. Qual of Life Res. 6, 139–150.Google Scholar
  47. Feinstein A. (1967). Clinical Judgment. Huntington NY: Krieger.Google Scholar
  48. Fletcher AE, Ellwein LB, Selvaraj S, Vijaykumar V, et al. (1997). Measurement of vision function and quality-of-life in patients with cataracts in southern India. Report of instrument development. Arch Ophthal. 15, 767–774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Fodor J. (1983). Modularity of the Mind. Cambridge MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  50. Frege, G. (1892/1966). On Concept and Object. In, (Eds.) P Geach, M Black. Translations from Philosophical Writings of Gottlob Frege. Oxford UK: Oxford University Press. (p. 42).Google Scholar
  51. Gärdenfors P. (2000). Conceptual Spaces: The Geometry of Though. Lexington MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  52. Geary DC, Huffman KJ. (2002). Brain and cognitive evolution forms of modularity and functions of mind. Psychol Bull. 128, 667–698.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gentner D, Boroditsky L. (1999). Individuation, relativity and early word learning. In, (Eds.) M Bowerman, S Levinson, Language Acquisition and Conceptual Development. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press. (p. 215–256).Google Scholar
  54. Gigerenzer G, Todd PM. (1999). Simple Heuristics that Make Us Smart. Cambridge MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  55. Gladwell M. (2005). Blink. New York NY: Little Brown.Google Scholar
  56. Glushko RJ, Maglio PP, Matlock T, Barsalou LW. (2008). Categorization in the wild. Trends Cogn Sci. 12, 129–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Gutiérrez JLG, Jiménez BM, Hernández EG, Puente CP. (2005). Personality and subjective well-being: Big five correlates and demographic variables. Personal Individ Differ. 38, 1561–1569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Guttman L. (1944). A basis for scaling qualitative data. Am Sociol Rev. 9, 139–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hasher L, Zacks RT. (1979). Automatic and effortful process in memory. J Exp Psychol Gen. 108, 356–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hayes SC, Wilson KG, Gifford EV, Follette VM, et al. (1996). Experiential avoidance and behavior disorders: A functional dimensional approach to diagnosis and treatment. J Consult Clin Psychol. 64, 1152–1168.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hirschfeld LA, Gelman SA. (1994). Towards a topography of mind: An introduction to domain specificity. In, (Ed.) LA Hirschfeld, SA Gelman. Mapping the Mind: Domain Specificity in Cognition and Culture. New York NY: Cambridge University Press. (p. 3–36).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hoffman AB, Murphy GL. (2006). Category dimensionality and feature knowledge: When more features are learned as easily as fewer. J Exp Psychol Learn, Mem Cogn. 32, 301–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Horton MS, Markman EM. (1980). Developmental differences in the acquisition of basic and superordinate categories. Child Dev. 51, 708–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hurt SJ, Andsager JL. (2003). Medicalization vs. adaptive models? Sense-making in magazine framing of menopause. Women Health. 38, 101–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems-10. (1994). Geneva Switzerland: WHO.Google Scholar
  66. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. (2001). Geneva Switzerland: WHO.Google Scholar
  67. Jansma JM, Ramsey NF, Slagter HA, Kahn RS (2001). Functional anatomical correlates of controlled and automatic processing. J Cogn NeuroSci. 13; 730–743.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. January D, Kako E. (2007). Re-evaluating the evidence for linguistic relativity: Reply to Boroditsky (2001). Cognition. 104,417–426.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Javitt JC, Jacobson G, Schiffman RM. (2003). Validity and reliability of the Cataract TyPE Spec: an instrument for measuring outcomes of cataract extraction. Am J Ophthalmol. 136, 285–290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Ji L-J, Nisbett RE. (2001). Culture, language and categories. Unpublished Manuscript, University of Michigan MI. (Referenced in Nisbett et al, 2001).Google Scholar
  71. Ji L-J, Zhang Z, Nisbett RE. (2004). It is culture or is it language? Examination of language efforts in cross-cultural research in categorization. J Personal Soc Psychol. 87, 57–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kahneman D, Tversky D. (1982). The psychology of preferences. Sci Am. 246, 160–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kelly AMC, Garavan H. (2005). Human functional neuroimaging of brain changes associated with practice. Cereb Cort. 15, 1089–1102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kim K, Relkin N, Lee K, Hirsch J. (1997). Distinct cortical areas associated with native and second languages. Nature. 388, 171–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. King CR, Hinds PS. (1998). Quality-of-life: From Nursing and Patient Perspectives. Theory, Research, Practice. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.Google Scholar
  76. Kovelman I, Baker SA, Petitto LA. (2008). Bilingual and monolingual brains compared: A functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of syntactic processing and a possible “neural signature” of bilingualism. J Cogn NeuroSci. 20, 153–169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Krause N, Kay G. (1994). What do global self-rated health items measure? Med Care. 32, 930–942.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kyllonen PC, Christal RE. (1990). Reasoning ability is (little more than) working memory capacity. Intelligence. 14, 389–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lakoff G. (1987). Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal About the Mind. Chicago II: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  80. Lakoff G, Johnson M. (1999). Philosophy in the Flesh: The Embodied Mind and its Challenge to Western Thought. New York NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  81. Lakoff G, Nunez RE (2000) Where Mathematics Comes From. New York NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  82. Lau J, Michon JJ, Chan W-S, Ellwein LB. (2002). Visual acuity and quality-of-life outcomes in cataract surgery patients in Hong Kong. Brit J Ophthalmol. 86; 12–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Lee JE, Fos PJ, Zuniga MA, Kastl PR, et al. (2001). Assessing health-related quality-of-life in cataract patients: The relationship between utility and health-related quality-of-life treatment. Qual Life Res. 9, 1127–1135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Liberman A, Mattingly I. (1989). A specialization for speech perception. Science. 243, 489–494.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Logan RF. (1986) The Alphabet Effect. New York NY: Morrow.Google Scholar
  86. Laurence S, Margolis E. (2002). Radical concept nativism. Cognition. 86, 25–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lykken D, Tellegen A. (1996). Happiness is a stochastic phenomenon. Psychol Sci. 7, 186–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Manguione CM, Phillips RS, Seddon JM, Lawrence MG, et al. (1992). Development of the ‘Activities of Daily Vision Scale’: A measure of visual functional status. Med Care. 30, 1111–1126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Manguione CM, Phillips RS, Lawrence MG, Seddon JM, et al. (1994). Improved visual function and attenuation of declines in health-related quality-of-life after cataract extraction. Acta Ophthalmol. 112,1419–1425.Google Scholar
  90. Marques JF. (2007). The general specific breakdown of semantic memory and the nature of superordinate knowledge: Insights from superordinate and basic-level feature norms. Cogn NeuroPsychol. 24, 879–903.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Marr D. (1982). Vision. New York NY: Freeman.Google Scholar
  92. McGrath PJ, Finley GA. (1999). Chronic and Recurrent Pain in Children and Adolescents. Seattle WA: IASP Press.Google Scholar
  93. Medin DL, Lynch EB, Coley JD, Atran S. (1997). Categorization and reasoning among tree experts: Do all roads lead to Rome? Cogn Psychol. 32, 49–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Medin DL, Schwanenflugel PJ. (1981). Linear separability in classification learning. J Exp Psychol Hum Learn Mem. 7: 355–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Medin DL, Lynch EB, Solomon KO. (2000). Are there kinds of concepts? Annu Rev Psychol. 51,121–147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Meehl PE. (1992). Factors and taxa, traits, and types, differences of degree and differences in kind. J Personal. 60, 117–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Meehl PE. (2004). What’s in a taxa? J Abnorm Psychol. 113, 39–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Melzack R, Wall PD. (1965). Pain mechanisms: A new theory. Science. 150, 971–979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Moors A, de Houwer J. (2006). Automaticity: A theoretical and conceptual analysis. Psychol Bull. 132, 297–326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Murphy GL. (2005). The study of concepts inside and outside the laboratory “Medin versus Medin.” In, (Eds.) W Ahn, RL Goldstone, BC Love, AB Markman, P Wolff. Categorization Inside and Outside the Laboratory: Essays in Honor of Douglas L. Medin. Washington DC: American Psychological Association. (p. 179–195).Google Scholar
  101. Murphy GL, Wisniewski EJ. (1989). Categorizing objects in isolation and in scenes: What a superordinate is good for. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn. 15, 572–586.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Nes RB, Røysamb E, Tambs K, Harris JR, et al. (2006). Subjective well-being : Genetic and environmental contributions to stability and change. Psychol Med. 36,1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Nisbett RE. (2003). The Geography of Thought. New York NY: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  104. Nisbett RE, Peng K, Choi I. (2001). Culture and systems of thought: Holistic versus analytic cognition. Psychol Rev. 108,291–310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Norenzayana A, Nisbett RE. (2000). Culture and causal cognition. Curr Direct Psychol Sci. 9, 132–135.Google Scholar
  106. Norman G. (2003). Hi! How are you? Response shift, implicit theories and differing epistemologies. Qual Life Res. 12, 239–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Nosofsky RM, Palmeri TJ. (1997). An exemplar-based random walk model of speeded classification. Psychol Rev. 104, 266–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Oxford English Dictionary. (1996). Oxford UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  109. Padilla GV, Kagawa-Singer M. Quality-of-life and culture. In, (Eds.) CR King, PA Hinds, Quality-of-life From Nursing and Patient Perspectives: Theory-Research-Practice. Sudbury MA, Jones and Bartlett, 1998. (p74–92).Google Scholar
  110. Patrick DL. (2003). Concept of health-related quality-of-life and of patient-reported outcomes. In, (Eds.) O Chassany, C Caulin. Health-Related Quality-of-life and Patient-reported Outcomes: Scientific and Useful Outcome Criteria. Paris France: Springer. (p. 23–34).Google Scholar
  111. Patrick DL, Chiang Y-P. (2000). Measurement of health outcomes in treatment effectiveness evaluations. Med Care.; 38 (Suppl II), II-14- II-25.Google Scholar
  112. Patrick DL, Deyo RA. (1989). Generic and disease-specific measures in assessing health status and quality-of-life. Med Care. 27(suppl. 3), S217–232.Google Scholar
  113. Patrick DL, Elinson J. (1984). Sociomedical approaches to disease and treatment outcomes in cardiovascular care. Qual Life Cardiovasc Care. 1, 53–62.Google Scholar
  114. Patrick DL, Erickson P. (1993). Health Status and Health Policy: Quality-of-life in Health Care Evaluation and Resource Allocation. New York NY: Oxford.Google Scholar
  115. Phillips C, Jarrold C, Baddeley AD, Grant J, et al. (2004). Comprehension of spatial language terms in Williams syndrome: evidence for an interaction between domains of strength and weakness. Cortex. 40, 85–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Polack S, Kuper H, Mathenge W, Fletcher A, et al. (2007). Cataract vision impairment and quality-of-life in a Kenyan population. Br J Ophthalmol. 91,927–932.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Pollak KL, Arnold RM, Jeffreys AS, Alexander SC, et al. (2007). Oncologist communication about emotion during visits with patients with advanced cancer. J Clin Oncol. 25, 5748–5752.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Pothos EM, Close J. (2008). One or two dimensions in spontaneous classification: A simplified approach. Cognition. 107, 581–602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Ramsey NF, Jansma JM, Jager G, van Raalten T, et al. (2004). Neurophysiological factors in human information processing ­capacity. Brain. 127, 517–525.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Read SJ, Jones DK, Miller LC. (1990). Traits as goal-based categories: The importance of goals in the coherence of dispositional categories. J Personal Soc Psychol. 58, 1048–1061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Rosch E, Mervis CB, Gray W, Johnson D, et al. (1976). Basic objects in natural categories. Cogn Psychol. 8, 382–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Rosen PN, Kaplan RM, David K. (2005). Measuring outcomes of cataract surgery using the Quality of Well-being Scale and the VF-14 Visual Function Index. J Cataract Refract Sur. 31: 359–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Ruscio J, Zimmerman M, McGlinchey JB, Chelminski I. (2007). Diagnosing major depression XI: A taxometric investigation of the structure underlying DSM-IV symptoms. J Nerv Ment Dis. 195, 10–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Schmidt NB, Kotov R, Joiner TE Jr. (2004). Taxometrics: Towards a New Diagnostic Scheme for Psychopathology. Washington DC: American Psychological Association Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Schneider W, Shiffrin RM. (1977). Controlled and automatic human information processing: I. Detection, search and attention. Psychol Rev. 84, 1–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Smith EE, Medin DL. (1981). Categories and Concepts. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  127. Smith ER, DeCoster J. (2000). Dual-process models in social and cognitive psychology: Conceptual integration and links to underlying memory systems. Personal Soc Psychol Rev. 4,108–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Sperber D. (1994). The modularity of thought and the epidemiology of representation. In, (Eds.) LA Hirschfeld, SA Gelman. Mapping the Mind: Domain Specificity in Cognition and Culture. New York NY: Cambridge University Press. (p. 39–67).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Sperber D. (2002). In defense of massive modularity. In, (Ed.) E Dupoux. Language, Brain, and Cognitive Development: Essays in Honor of Jacques Mehler. Cambridge MA: MIT Press. (p. 47–57).Google Scholar
  130. Spranger MA, Schwartz CE. (1999). Integrating response shift into health-related quality-of-life research: a theoretical model. Soc Sci Med. 49, 1507–1515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Springer K, Keil FC. (1989). On the development of biologically specific beliefs: the case of inheritance. Child Dev. 60, 637–648.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Stanovisch KE, Wast RF. (2003). Evolutionary versus instrumental goals: How evolutionary psychology misconceives human rationality. In, (Ed.) DE Over, Evolution and the Psychology of Thinking. Philadelphia PA: Psychology Press. (p 171–230).Google Scholar
  133. Steinberg EP, Tielsch JM, Shein OD, Javitt JC, et al. (1994). The VF-14: An index of functional impairment in patients with cataracts. Arch Ophthalmol. 112, 630–638.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Teasdale JD. (1999). Multi-level theories of cognition-emotion relations. In (Eds.) T Dalgleish, MJ Power, Handbook of Cognition and Emotion. Chichester UK: Wiley. (p. 665–681).Google Scholar
  135. Torrance GW. (1986). Measurement of health state utilities for economic appraisal: A review. J Health Econ. 5, 1–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Torrance GW, Furlong W, Feeny D, Boyle M. (1995). Multi-attribute preference functions: Health Utilities Index. Pharm Econ. 7, 503–520.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Uleman JS, Newman LS, Moskowitz GB. (1996). People as flexible interpreters: Evidence and issues from spontaneous trait inference. In, (Ed.) MP Zanna, Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. San Diego CA: Academic Press.(Vol. 28, p. 211–279).Google Scholar
  138. van Reekum CM, Urry HL, Johnstone T, Thurow ME, et al. (2007) Individual differences in amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex activity are associated with evaluation speed and psychological well-being. J Cogn NeuroSci. 19, 237–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. von Osch SMC, Stiggelbout AM. (2005). Understanding VAS valuations: Qualitative data on the cognitive process. Qual Life Res. 14, 2171–2175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Vygotsky LS. (1962). Thought and Language. Cambridge MA: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Wall PD, Melzack R. (1994). Textbook of Pain. Edinburgh UK: Churchill Livingstone.Google Scholar
  142. Ware JE, Sherbourne CD. (1992). The MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36®): I. conceptual framework and item selection. Med Care. 30,473–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Weiskopf DA. (2009). The plurality of concepts. Synthese. 169. DOI 1007/S11229-008-9340-8.Google Scholar
  144. Weiss A, Bates TC, Luciano M. (2008). Happiness is a personal(ity) thing: The genetics of personality and well-being in a representative sample. Psychol Sci. 19, 205–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Whorf BL. (1956). Language, Thought and Reality. Cambridge MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  146. Wilson IB, Cleary PD. (1995). Linking clinical variables with health-related quality-of-life: A conceptual model of patient outcomes. JAMA. 273, 59–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Winawer J, Witthoft N, Frank MC, Wu L, et al. (2007). Russian blues reveal effects of language on color discrimination. Proc Natl Acad Sci (USA) 104; 7780–7785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Wisniewski EJ, Clancy EJ, Tillman RN. (2005). On different types of categories. In, (Eds.) W Ahn, RL Goldstone, BC Love, AB Markman, P Wolff. Categorization Inside and Outside the Laboratory: Essays in Honor of Douglas L. Medin. Washington DC: American Psychological Association. (p. 103–126).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Yellen SB, Cella DF, Webster K, Blendowski C, Kaplan E. (1997). Measuring fatigue and other anemia-related symptoms with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT) measurement system. J Pain Symptom Manag. 13,16–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Zárate MA, Sanders JD, Garza AA. (2000). Neurological disassociations of social perception processes. Soc Cogn. 18, 223–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Zeithamova D, Maddox WT. (2006). Dual-task interference in ­perceptual category learning. Mem Cogn. 34, 387–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Zigmond AS, Snaith RP. (1983). The hospital and anxiety and depression scale. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 67, 361–370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Zimmerman M, McGlinchey JB, Young D, Cheiminski I. (2006). Diagnosing major depressive disorder IX: Are patients who deny low mood a distinct subgroup? J Nerv Ment Dis. 194, 864–869.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Quality of Life InstituteEast SandwichUSA

Personalised recommendations