• Daniel A. Culver
  • Marc A. Judson


Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous syndrome with protean manifestations. Although sarcoidosis was initially described nearly 150 years ago, its etiopathogenesis remains elusive. Because sarcoidosis affects the lungs in approximately 95% of patients, pulmonologists are often called upon to manage this disease. However, since it is a systemic disease, it is essential to have an understanding of the spectrum of its extrapulmonary manifestations. Despite many gaps in our current knowledge, there have been substantial advances in recent years regarding the diagnosis, approach to symptoms, and therapeutic options for patients with sarcoidosis. New technology such as ultrasound guided transbronchial needle aspiration has altered the approach to the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. There has been increased recognition of a spectrum of symptoms related to sarcoidosis, such as fatigue and dyspnea, which must be addressed to optimize outcomes. The development of biologic therapies and an expanded array of other steroid-sparing medications have generated new treatment options. In this chapter, we have summarized the current state of knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and general clinical approach to patients with pulmonary and extrapulmonary sarcoidosis.


Sarcoidosis Granulomas Extrapulmonary sarcoidosis Endobronchial ultrasound Steroid-sparing medications TNF antagonists 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Respiratory Institute, Cleveland ClinicClevelandUSA
  2. 2.Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Department of MedicineMedical University of South CarolinaCharlestonUSA

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