Juvenile arthritis (JA) is any type of arthritis or an arthritis-related condition that develops in children or teenagers who are under 18 (Lawrence et al., 1998; Arthritis Foundation Website). About 294,000 children are affected by JA and rheumatologic conditions (Sacks et al., 2007). These children typically have pain, swelling, tenderness, and stiffness of joints, causing limited range of motion, joint contracture, which occurs when holding a painful joint in a flexed position for a long time, damage to joint cartilage and bone, causing joint deformity and limited joint use, and altered growth of bone and joints, causing short stature.
KeywordsJuvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Patient Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Juvenile Arthritis
- Anthony, K. (2005). Parental perceptions of child vulnerability in parents of preschool-aged and young children with arthritis: relationships with child adjustment, functional status and health care use. Dissert Abstracts Int, Section B, 65 (7-B), 3696.Google Scholar
- Arthritis Foundation (2008). Arthritis fact sheet. Retrieved February 21, 2010 from: http://www.arthritis.org/media/newsroom/media-kits/JuvenileArthritisFactSheet.pdf
- Balague, F., Nordin, M., Skovron, M.I., et al. (1994). Low back pain among school children: a field survey. Spinal Disord, 7 (5), 374–379.Google Scholar
- Brewer, E.J., Angel, K.C. (1992). Parenting a child with arthritis: a practical, empathetic guide to help your child live with arthritis. Los Angeles, CA: Lowell House.Google Scholar
- Cassidy, J., Petty, R. (1995). Textbook of pediatric rheumatology (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders.Google Scholar
- Clay, D.L., Harper, D.C., Varni, J.W. (1999). Use of emerging technologies to address barriers to treatment research in pediatric chronic pain. Paper presented at the Florida conference on Child Health Psychology, Gainesville, FL.Google Scholar
- Ellis, J.A., Munro, J.E., Ponsonby, A.L. (2009). Possible environmental determinants of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Rheumatology, 49 (3), 319–324.Google Scholar
- Harper, R.P., Kevins, C.A., Talman, R., Spears, R., Hutchens, B., Carlson, D.S., McIntosh, J.E., Ballinger, L.L. (2000). Masticatory function in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Pediatric Dent, 79 (9), 1704–1711.Google Scholar
- Jamison, R.N., Walker, L.S. (1992). Illness behavior in children of chronic pain. Psych Med, 22 (4), 329–342.Google Scholar
- Janz, J., Harrison, J., Caldwell, T. (1993). Children with special health needs in school: developing and individualized educational program and an individualized health care plan. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the Council for Exceptional Children, San Antonio, TX.Google Scholar
- Milota, C., Goldberg, M., Goldberg, P., et al. (1991). Count me in: resource manual on disabilities. Minneapolis, MN: PACER Center Inc. Retrieved February 27, 2010 from: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/3/98/8a.pdf.
- Morley, S. (2004). What impact does childhood experience have on the development of chronic pain? In R.H. Dworkin, W.S. Breitbart (Eds.), Psychosocial aspects of pain. Seattle, WA: IASP Press, pp. 57–72.Google Scholar
- Pontkaki, I., Gerloni, V., Gattinara, M., et al. (2006). Side effects of anti-TNFalpha therapy in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Rheumatismo, 58 (1), 31–38.Google Scholar
- Rapoff, M.A. (1996). Adherence. In S.T. Wegener, B.L. Belza, E.P. Gall (Eds.), Clinical care in the rheumatic diseases. Atlanta, GA: American College of Rheumatology, pp. 137–140.Google Scholar
- Takken, T., van Brussel, M., Engelbert, R.H., et al. (2008). Exercise therapy in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, Apr 16 (2), CD005954.Google Scholar
- Wallace, C.A., Lovell, D.J., Giannini, E.H., et al. (2008). Interim report of the trial of early aggressive therapy (TREAT) in JIA Study. Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA). Retrieved on February 22, 2010 from: http://www.arthritis.org/carra-2008.php#TREAT.