The Pet Attitude Scale

  • Donald I. Templer
  • Hiroko Arikawa


It was the intention of the authors that this chapter be a resource of test and measures for the reader. The name of the Pet Attitude Scale (PAS) (Templer, Salter, Dickey, Baldwin, & Veleber, 1981), apparently the first published scale that measures human–animal bonding, reflects the fact that it was developed three decades ago. If it were constructed today, it would be more appropriately called the Companion Animal Attitude Scale. The word “pet” often implies subordinate status. The literature cited by Templer et al. (1981) also reflects the era in which it was written. For one thing, the quantity of literature cited was rather sparse. Since that time the literature on human–animal relationships has increased greatly. Second, the literature cited pertains to the benefits to the psychological and physical health of humans. Thirty years ago there was much less emphasis on animal welfare.


Companion Animal Family Resemblance Psychometric Instrument Animal Cruelty Animal Attitude 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Al-Fayez, G., Awadalla, A., Templer, D. I., & Arikawa, H. (2003). Companion animal attitude and its family pattern in Kuwait. Society & Animals, 11, 17–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen, K. M., Blascovich, J., Tomaka, J., & Kelsey, R. M. (1991). Presence of human friends and pet dogs as moderators of autonomic responses to stress in women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 582–589.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, W. P., Reid, C. M., & Jennings, G. L. (1992). Pet ownership and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Medical Journal of Australia, 157, 298–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Charnetski, C. J., Riggers, S., & Brennan, F. X. (2004). Effect of petting a dog on immune system function. Psychological Reports, 95, 1087–1091.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Comrey, A.L. (2008). The Comrey Personality Scales. In G. J. Boyle, G. Matthews, & D. H. Saklofske (Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Personality Theory and Assessment: Personality Measurement and Testing (Vol. 2, pp. 113–134). Thousand Oaks, CA, USA: Sage Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
  6. Cox, R. P. (1993). The human/animal bond as a correlate of family functioning. Clinical Nursing Research, 2(2), 224–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Crowley-Robinson, P. (1998). Nursing home staffs’ empathy for a missing therapy dog, their attitudes to animal-assisted therapy programs and suitability of dog breeds. Anthrozoos, 11, 101–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Daly, B., & Morton, L. L. (2006). An investigation of human–animal interactions and empathy as related to pet preference, ownership, attachment, and attitudes in children. Anthrozoos, 19(2), 113–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dixon-Preylo, B., & Arikawa, H. (2008). Comparison of vegetarians and non-vegetarians on pet attitude and empathy. Anthrozoos, 21, 387–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Evans, R., Gauthier, D., & Forsyth, C. (1998). Dogfighting: Symbolic expression and validation of masculinity. Sex Roles, 39, 835–838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Forsyth, C. (1996). A pecking disorder: Cockfighting in Louisiana. International Review of Modern Sociology, 26, 15–25.Google Scholar
  12. Grossberg, J. M., & Alf, E. F., Jr. (1985). Interaction with pet dogs: Effects on human cardiovascular response. Journal of the Delta Society, 2, 20–22.Google Scholar
  13. Holcomb, R., Williams, R. C., & Richards, P. S. (1988). The elements of attachment: Relationship to maintenance and intimacy. Journal of the Delta Society, 2, 28–34.Google Scholar
  14. Johnson, T. P., Garrity, T. F., & Stallones, L. (1995). Psychometric evaluation of the Lexington Attachment to Pets Scale (LAPS). Anthrozoos, 5, 160–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lago, D., Kafer, R., Delaney, M., & Connell, C. (1988). Assessment of favorable attitudes towards pets: Development and preliminary validation of self-report pet relationship scales. Anthrozoos, 1, 240–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lynch, J. J., Thomas, S. A., Pastwitty, D. A., Katcher, A. H., & Weir, L. O. (1977). Human contact and cardiac arrhythmia in a coronary care unit. Psychosomatic Medicine, 39, 188–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Miura, A., Bradshaw, J. W. S., & Tanida, H. (2002). Childhood experiences and attitudes towards animal issues: A comparison of young adults in Japan and the UK. Animal Welfare, 11, 437–448.Google Scholar
  18. Molina, M. (2008). Psychological correlates for the approval of animal fighting. Doctoral dissertation, Alliant International University, Fresno, CA.Google Scholar
  19. Moroi, K. (1984). Loneliness and attitudes toward pets. Japanese Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 24, 93–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Morovati, D. R., Steinberg, A. L., Taylor, L. C., & Lee, H. B. (2008). Further validation evidence for the Pet Attitude Scale. North American Journal of Psychology, 10, 543–552.Google Scholar
  21. Munsell, K. L., Canfield, M., Templer, D. I., Tangen, K., & Arikawa, H. (2004). Modification of the pet attitude scale. Society and Animals: Journal of Human–Animal Studies, 12, 137–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Planchon, L. A., & Templer, D. I. (1996). The correlates of grief after death of pet. Anthrozoos, 9, 107–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Planchon, L. A., Templer, D. I., Stokes, S., & Keller, J. (2002). Bereavement experience following the death of a companion cat or dog. Society & Animals, 10, 94–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Poresky, R. H., Hendrix, C., Mosier, J. E., & Samuelson, M. L. (1987). The companion animal bonding scale: Internal reliability and construct validity. Psychological Reports, 60, 743–746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Poresky, R. H., Hendrix, C., Mosier, J. E., & Samuelson, M. L. (1988). The companion animal semantic differential: Long and short form reliability and validity. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 48, 255–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ruckdeschel, K., & Van Haitsma, K. (2001). The impact of live-in animals and plants on nursing home residents: A pilot longitudinal investigation. Alzheimer’s Care Quarterly, 2(4), 17–27.Google Scholar
  27. Schenk, S., Templer, D. I., Peters, N. B., & Schmidt, M. (1994). The genesis and correlates of attitudes toward pets. Anthrozoos, 7, 60–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Schuelke, S. T., Trask, B., Wallace, C., Baun, M. M., Bergstrom, N., & McCabe, B. (1991–1992). Physiological effects of the use of a companion animal dog as a cue to relaxation in diagnosed hypertensives. The Latham Letter, 13, 14–17.Google Scholar
  29. Staats, S., Miller, D., Carnot, M. J., Rada, K., & Turnes, J. (1996). The Miller-Rada commitment to Pets Scale. Anthrozoos, 9(2/3), 88–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Tangen, K. A. (2008). The relationship between attitudes toward animals and attitudes toward people. Doctoral dissertation, Alliant International University, Fresno, CA.Google Scholar
  31. Templer, D. I. (1970). The construction and validation of a Death Anxiety Scale. Journal of General Psychology, 82, 165–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Templer, D. I., Connelly, H., Bassman, L., & Hart, J. (2006). Construction and validation of an animal-human continuity scale. Social Behavior and Personality, 34, 769–776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Templer, D. I., Lavoie, M., Chalgujian, H., & Thomas-Dobson, S. (1990). The measurement of death depression. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 46(6), 824–839.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Templer, D. I., Ruff, C. F., & Fanks, C. M. (1971). Death anxiety: Age, sex, and parental resemblance in diverse populations. Developmental Psychology, 4(1), 108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Templer, D. I., Salter, C. A., Dickey, S., Baldwin, R., & Veleber, D. (1981). The construction of a pet attitude scale. Psychological Record, 31, 343–348.Google Scholar
  36. Vormbrock, J. K., & Grossberg, J. M. (1988). Cardiovascular effects of human–pet dog interactions. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 11, 509–517.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Williams, J. M., Muldoon, J., & Lawrence, A. (2009). Children and their pets: Exploring the relationships between pet ownership, pet attitudes, attachments to pets and empathy. Education and Health, 28, 12–15.Google Scholar
  38. Wilson, C. C., Netting, F. E., & New, J. C. (1987). The Pet Attitude Inventory. Anthrozoos, 1, 76–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wrightsman, L. S. (1974). Assumptions about human nature: A social-psychological analysis. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Alliant International UniversityFresnoUSA
  2. 2.Missouri State UniversitySpringfieldUSA

Personalised recommendations