The cell (cellula: small compartment) was described by R. Hooke in 1663. From 1673, A. van Leeuwenhoek wrote his observations on cells. In 1805, L. Oken stated that “all living organisms originate from and consist of cells”. In the early 1830s, R. Brown reported on cell nucleus. Slightly later, M. Schleiden and T. Schwann formulated the early cell theory that was improved later by R. Virchow.


Nicotine Respiration Cardiomyopathy Succinate Nucleoside 


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© Springer Science+Buisness Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Project-team INRIA-UPMC-CNRS REO Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, CNRS UMR 7598Université Pierre et Marie CurieParis Cedex 05France

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