Perspectives on Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

  • Colleen G. Le Prell
  • Donald Henderson
Part of the Springer Handbook of Auditory Research book series (SHAR, volume 40)


Hearing impairment is the third most prevalent chronic disability in the United States, and hearing loss in the speech frequency region (pure-tone average threshold at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz ≥ 25 dB) is currently estimated to affect 29 million Americans ages 20–69 years based on 2003–2004 data (16% of population; Agrawal et al. 2008). When the higher frequencies are considered (pure-tone average at 3, 4, and 6 kHz ≥ 25 HL), the number affected doubles (Agrawal et al. 2008). Consistent with this, the National Institutes of Health has estimated that some 15% of Americans between the ages of 20 and 69 have hearing loss at higher test frequencies, suggesting the hearing loss may have been caused by exposure to loud sound (National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders 2002).


Hearing Loss Hair Cell Noise Exposure Loud Sound Music Player 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Agrawal, Y., Platz, E. A., & Niparko, J. K. (2008). Prevalence of hearing loss and differences by demographic characteristics among U.S. adults: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 to 2004. Archives of Internal Medicine, 168(14), 1522–1530.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agrawal, Y., Platz, E. A., & Niparko, J. K. (2009). Risk factors for hearing loss in U.S. adults: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 to 2002. Otology & Neurotology, 30(2), 139–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Avraham, K. (2009). Noise stresses the junctions to deaf. EMBO Molecular Medicine, 1, 85–87.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baguley, D. M. (2003). Hyperacusis. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 96(12), 582–585.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bahloul, A., Simmler, M.-C., Michel, V., Leibovici, M., Perfettini, I., Roux, I., Weil, D., Nouaille, S., Zuo, J., Zadro, C., Licastro, D., Gasparini, P., Avan, P., Hardelin, J.-P., & Petit, C. (2009). Vezatin, an integral membrane protein of adherens junctions, is required for the sound resilience of cochlear hair cells. EMBO Molecular Medicine, 1, 125–138.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cai, S., Ma, W. L., & Young, E. D. (2009). Encoding intensity in ventral cochlear nucleus following acoustic trauma: Implications for loudness recruitment. Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, 10(1), 5–22.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Campbell, K. C., & Le Prell, C. G. (2011). Potential therapeutic agents. Seminars in Hearing, in press.Google Scholar
  8. Castle, S. (2008, October 12). Did you hear? MP3 players threaten hearing loss. Retrieved from
  9. Cruickshanks, K. J., Wiley, T. L., Tweed, T. S., Klein, B. E., Klein, R., Mares-Perlman, J. A., & Nondahl, D. M. (1998). Prevalence of hearing loss in older adults in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin. The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 148(9), 879–886.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cunningham, K. (2009, September 3). The iPod effect—Excessive MP3 player use can lead to permanent hearing loss. Retrieved December 17, 2010 from
  11. Danhauer, J. L., Johnson, C. E., Byrd, A., DeGood, L., Meuel, C., Pecile, A., & Koch, L. L. (2009). Survey of college students on iPod use and hearing health. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, 20(1), 5–27;quiz 12–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dauman, R., & Bouscau-Faure, F. (2005). Assessment and amelioration of hyperacusis in tinnitus patients. Acta Oto-Laryngologica, 125(5), 503–509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. de Vries, L. (2005, August 25). MP3s may threaten hearing loss. CBS News. Retrieved from
  14. Fligor, B. J., & Cox, L. C. (2004). Output levels of commercially available portable compact disc players and the potential risk to hearing. Ear and Hearing, 25(6), 513–527.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Henderson, D., Bielefeld, E. C., Harris, K. C., & Hu, B. H. (2006). The role of oxidative stress in noise-induced hearing loss. Ear and Hearing, 27(1), 1–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hodgetts, W., Szarko, R., & Rieger, J. (2009). What is the influence of background noise and exercise on the listening levels of iPod users? International Journal of Audiology, 48(12), 825–832.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hodgetts, W. E., Rieger, J. M., & Szarko, R. A. (2007). The effects of listening environment and earphone style on preferred listening levels of normal hearing adults using an MP3 player. Ear and Hearing, 28(3), 290–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hong, O. (2005). Hearing loss among operating engineers in American construction industry. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 78(7), 565–574.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ison, J. R., Allen, P. D., & O’Neill, W. E. (2007). Age-related hearing loss in C57BL/6 J mice has both frequency-specific and non-frequency-specific components that produce a hyperacusis-like exaggeration of the acoustic startle reflex. Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, 8(4), 539–550.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jansen, E. J., Helleman, H. W., Dreschler, W. A., & de Laat, J. A. (2009). Noise induced hearing loss and other hearing complaints among musicians of symphony orchestras. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 82(2), 153–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jastreboff, P. J., & Jastreboff, M. M. (2003). Tinnitus retraining therapy for patients with tinnitus and decreased sound tolerance. Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America, 36(2), 321–336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Katz, A. E., Gerstman, H. L., Sanderson, R. G., & Buchanan, R. (1982). Stereo earphones and hearing loss. New England Journal of Medicine, 307(23), 1460–1461.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Katzenell, U., & Segal, S. (2001). Hyperacusis: Review and clinical guidelines. Otology & Neurotology, 22(3), 321–326; discussion 326–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kean, C. (2010, January). MP3 Generation: Noise-induced hearing loss rising among children and adolescents. ENT Today. Retrieved from
  25. Kim, M. G., Hong, S. M., Shim, H. J., Kim, Y. D., Cha, C. I., & Yeo, S. G. (2009). Hearing threshold of Korean adolescents associated with the use of personal music players. Yonsei Medical Journal, 50(6), 771–776.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kujawa, S. G., & Liberman, M. C. (2006). Acceleration of age-related hearing loss by early noise exposure: Evidence of a misspent youth. Journal of Neuroscience, 26(7), 2115–2123.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kujawa, S. G., & Liberman, M. C. (2009). Adding insult to injury: Cochlear nerve degeneration after “temporary” noise-induced hearing loss. Journal of Neuroscience, 29(45), 14077–14085.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Le Prell, C. G., Yamashita, D., Minami, S., Yamasoba, T., & Miller, J. M. (2007). Mechanisms of noise-induced hearing loss indicate multiple methods of prevention. Hearing Research, 226, 22–43.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Le Prell, C. G., Hensley, B. N., Campbell, K. C. M., Hall, J. W. I., & Guire, K. (2011). Hearing outcomes in a “normally-hearing” college-student population: Evidence of hearing loss. International Journal of Audiology, 50(Supplement 1), S21–31.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Maria, A., Zocoli, F., Morata, T. C., Marques, J. M., & Corteletti, L. J. (2009). Brazilian young adults and noise: Attitudes, habits, and audiological characteristics. International Journal of Audiology, 48(10), 692–699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. May, B. J., Little, N., & Saylor, S. (2009). Loudness perception in the domestic cat: Reaction time estimates of equal loudness contours and recruitment effects. Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, 10(2), 295–308.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Meyer-Bisch, C. (1996). Epidemiological evaluation of hearing damage related to strongly amplified music (personal cassette players, discotheques, rock concerts)--high-definition audiometric survey on 1364 subjects. Audiology, 35(3), 121–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Morata, T. C. (2007). Young people: Their noise and music exposures and the risk of hearing loss. International Journal of Audiology, 46(3), 111–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Murphy, W., & Tak, S. W. (2009, Posted 11/24/09.). NIOSH science blog: Workplace hearing loss Retrieved April 27, 2010 from
  35. National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. (2002). Noise-induced hearing loss (NIH Pub. No. 97–4233). Bethesda, MD.Google Scholar
  36. Nelson, J. J., & Chen, K. (2004). The relationship of tinnitus, hyperacusis, and hearing loss. Ear, Nose, and Throat Journal, 83(7), 472–476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Niskar, A. S., Kieszak, S. M., Holmes, A., Esteban, E., Rubin, C., & Brody, D. J. (1998). Prevalence of hearing loss among children 6 to 19 years of age: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. JAMA, 279(14), 1071–1075.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Niskar, A. S., Kieszak, S. M., Holmes, A. E., Esteban, E., Rubin, C., & Brody, D. J. (2001). Estimated prevalence of noise-induced hearing threshold shifts among children 6 to 19 years of age: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994, United States. Pediatrics, 108(1), 40–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Nondahl, D. M., Shi, X., Cruickshanks, K. J., Dalton, D. S., Tweed, T. S., Wiley, T. L., & Carmichael, L. L. (2009). Notched audiograms and noise exposure history in older adults. Ear and Hearing, 30(6), 696–703.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Osei-Lah, V., & Yeoh, L. H. (2010). High frequency audiometric notch: An outpatient clinic ­survey. International Journal of Audiology, 49(2), 95–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Schmuziger, N., Patscheke, J., & Probst, R. (2006). Hearing in nonprofessional pop/rock ­musicians. Ear and Hearing, 27(4), 321–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sendowski, I., Braillon-Cros, A., & Delaunay, C. (2004). CAP amplitude after impulse noise ­exposure in guinea pigs. European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, 261(2), 77–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Shah, S., Gopal, B., Reis, J., & Novak, M. (2009). Hear today, gone tomorrow: An assessment of portable entertainment player use and hearing acuity in a community sample. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 22(1), 17–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Shargorodsky, J., Curhan, S. G., Curhan, G. C., & Eavey, R. (2010). Change in prevalence of ­hearing loss in U.S. adolescents. JAMA, 304(7), 772–778.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Spankovich, C., Hood, L., Silver, H., Lambert, W., Flood, V., & Mitchell, P. (2011). Associations between diet and both high and low pure tone averages and transient evoked otoacoustic emissions in an older adult population-based study. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, 22, 49–58.Google Scholar
  46. Suter, A. H. (2007). Development of standards and regulations for occupational noise. In M. Crocker (Ed.), Handbook of noise and vibration control. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  47. Turner, J. G., & Parrish, J. (2008). Gap detection methods for assessing salicylate-induced tinnitus and hyperacusis in rats. American Journal of Audiology, 17(2), S185–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. United States Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine (USACHPPM). (2007). U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventative Medicine. 2006 Veterans Compensation Charts and VA Disability Reports Retrieved October 26, 2007, from
  49. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. (2010). 2009 Annual Benefits Report. Retrieved October 5, 2010 from
  50. Vogel, I., Brug, J., Hosli, E. J., van der Ploeg, C. P., & Raat, H. (2008). MP3 players and hearing loss: Adolescents’ perceptions of loud music and hearing conservation. Journal of Pediatrics, 152(3), 400–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Vogel, I., Verschuure, H., van der Ploeg, C. P., Brug, J., & Raat, H. (2009). Adolescents and MP3 players: Too many risks, too few precautions. Pediatrics, 123(6), e953–958.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wang, Y., Hirose, K., & Liberman, M. C. (2002). Dynamics of noise-induced cellular injury and repair in the mouse cochlea. Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, 3(3), 248–268.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Williams, W. (2009). Trends in listening to personal stereos. International Journal of Audiology, 48(11), 784–788.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Yoshida, N., Hequembourg, S. J., Atencio, C. A., Rosowski, J. J., & Liberman, M. C. (2000). Acoustic injury in mice: 129/SvEv is exceptionally resistant to noise-induced hearing loss. Hearing Research, 141(1–2), 97–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Speech, Language, and Hearing SciencesUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Communication Disorders and Science, Center for Hearing Research, College of Arts and SciencesState University of New York at BuffaloBuffaloUSA

Personalised recommendations