Cooperation and the Evolution of Social Living: Moving Beyond the Constraints and Implications of Misleading Dogma: Introduction Part II

  • Marc Bekoff
Part of the Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects book series (DIPR, volume 36)


The chapters in this section offer fascinating insights into the social behavior and social organization of various primates. They emphasize the importance of long-term fieldwork on identified individuals for learning about the evolution and ecology of social behavior. As such, these essays are extremely valuable not only because they review current information but also because they go beyond mere paradigm and often lazy-thinking about the factors that influence group-living in free-ranging animals. To wit, and in the spirit of the other chapters in this forward-looking and very important book, the authors show that cooperation even among non-kin is very important in structuring the social organization of different species living in different environments. They emphasize that cooperation has not merely evolved to reduce aggression or as a reaction to competition but serves a significant, perhaps a leading role, in the evolution of social behavior and social organization. To simply put it, cooperation is normal behavior.


Carbon Footprint Niche Construction Social Play Howler Monkey Inequity Aversion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Bekoff, M. 1975. The communication of play intention: Are play signals functional? Semiotica, 15, 231–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bekoff, M. 1977. Social communication in canids: Evidence for the evolution of a stereotyped mammalian display. Science 197, 1097–1099.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bekoff, M. 1995. Play signals as punctuation: The structure of social play in canids. Behaviour, 132, 419–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bekoff, M. 2007. The Emotional Lives of Animals. Novato, CA: New world Library.Google Scholar
  5. Bekoff, M. 2008. Increasing our compassion footprint: Some reflections on the treatment of animals. Zygon (Journal of Religion and Science) 43, 771–781.Google Scholar
  6. Bekoff, M. 2010. The Animal Manifesto: Six Reasons for Expanding Our Compassion Footprint. Novato, CA: New world Library.Google Scholar
  7. Bekoff, M., J. Pierce. 2009. Wild Justice: The Moral Lives of Animals. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bekoff, M., M.C. Wells. 1986. Social behavior and ecology of coyotes. Advances in the Study of Behavior 16, 251–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Darwin, C. 1871/2004. The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex. New York: Penguin Classics.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. de Waal, F. 2009. The Age of Empathy. New York: Harmony.Google Scholar
  11. Goodall, J. 1986. The Chimpanzees of Gombe. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Keltner, D. 2009. Born to be Good. New York: W. W. North & Company.Google Scholar
  13. Keltner, D., J. Marsh, J.A. Smith (eds.). 2010. The Compassionate Instinct. New York: W. W, Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  14. McCullough, M.C. 2008. Beyond Revenge: The Evolution of the Forgiveness Instinct. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-BassGoogle Scholar
  15. Ridley, M. 2010. The Rational Optimist. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  16. Rifkin, J. 2010. The Empathic Civilization: The Race to Global Consciousness in a World in Crisis. New York: Tarcher.Google Scholar
  17. Sheratt, T.N., D.M. Wilkinson. 2009. Big Questions in Ecology and Evolution. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Sussman, R.W., P.A. Garber, J.M. Cheverud. 2005. Importance of cooperation and affiliation in the evolution of primate sociality. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 128, 84–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Wrangham, R.W., M. Wilson, M. Muller. 2006. Comparative rates of violence in chimpanzees and humans. Primates 47, 14–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ecology and Evolutionary BiologyUniversity of ColoradoBoulderUSA

Personalised recommendations