Advertisement

Prevention and Whole Person Care

  • Tom A. HutchinsonEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Prevention of disease always seems like a good idea. Who could argue against taking measures to prevent a heart attack or detecting cancer early (at a stage when it can be removed or effectively treated)? These disease-focused measures aimed at prevention make such good common sense that it is hard to argue against them and we would not do so because they really can work. And yet, there are problems with these approaches that often elude common sense. We believe that these limitations need to be appreciated and the preventative measures aimed at disease need to bolstered by complementary measures based on the whole body and the whole person.

Keywords

Whole body Whole person Primary prevention Secondary ­prevention Prevention paradox Randomized trials Exercise Diet Sleep Stress Well-being Quality of life Meaning Connection Hippocratic Asklepian Mindful 

References

  1. 1.
    Fletcher RH, Fletcher SW, Wagner EH. Prevention (Chapter 8). In: Clinical epidemiology. The essentials. 3rd ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins; 1996. p. 165–85.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rose G. Strategy of prevention: lessons from cardiovascular disease [Occasional Review]. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1981;282:1847–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brophy JM, Costa V. Statin wars following coronary revascularization – evidence-based clinical practice? Can J Cardiol. 2006;22(1):54–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Black WC, Welch HG. Advances in diagnostic imaging and overestimations of disease prevalence and the benefits of therapy. N Engl J Med. 1993;328(17):1237–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Taylor WF, Fontana RS, Uhlenhopp MA, Davis CS. Some results of screening for early lung cancer. Cancer. 1981;47:1114–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Marcus PM, Bergstralh EJ, Fagerstrom RM, Williams DE, Fontana R, Taylor WF, et al. Lung cancer mortality in the Mayo Lung Project: impact of extended follow-up. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000;92(16):1308–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Helgesen F, Holmeberg L, Johansson JE, et al. Trends in prostate cancer survival in Sweden, 1960 through 1988: evidence of increasing diagnosis of nonlethal tumors. J Nat Cancer Inst. 1996;88(7):1216–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hakama M, Holli K, Visakorpi T, Pekola M, Kallioniemi O-P. Low biological aggressiveness of screen-detected lung cancers may indicate over-diagnosis. Int J Cancer. 1996;66:6–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zahl PH, Maehlen J, Welch HG. The natural history of invasive breast cancers detected by screening mammography. Arch Intern Med. 2008;168(21):2311–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    U.S Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for breast cancer: U.S. preventive services task force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2009;151(10):716–26.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hayward RA, Krumholz HM, Zulman DM, Timble JW, Vijan S. Optimizing statin treatment for primary prevention of coronary artery disease. Ann Intern Med. 2010;152:69–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fletcher GF, Balady G, Blair SN, Blumenthal J, Caspersen C, Chaitman B, et al. Statement on Exercise: Benefits and Recommendations for Physical Activity Programs for All Americans. Circulation. 1996;94:857–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cassileth BR, Heitzer M, Wesa K. The public health impact of herbs and nutritional supplements. Pharm Biol. 2009;47(8):761–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zee PC, Turek FW. Sleep and health: everywhere and in both directions. Arch Intern Med. 2006;66(16):1686–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Selye H. Stress and the general adaptation syndrome. BM J. 1950;4667:1383–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kabat-Zinn J. Full catastrophe living. Using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain, and illness. 15th ed. New York, NY: Delta Trade Paperback; 1995.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Frankl V. Man’s searching for meaning. Boston: Beacon; 2006.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Harrington A. Healing ties (Chapter 5). In: The cure within. A history of mind-body medicine. New York, NY: W. W. Norton; 2008. p. 175–204.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mount B, Boston P. Healing connections: a phenomenological study of suffering, wellness and quality of life. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2007;33:372–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Drazen RY. The Choice Is Yours [DVD]. Drazen Productions; 2001. Distributed by the American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Smith K. Chapter 14. In: Philips D, editor. Heroes. 100 Stories of living with kidney failure. Montreal, QC: Grosvenor House; 1998. p. 43–47.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Programs in Whole Person CareMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada

Personalised recommendations