Underemployment – when workers are employed in jobs which are substandard relative to their goals and expectations – is a problem faced by increasing numbers of individuals in industrialized nations around the world. Individuals can experience underemployment because they cannot work as many hours as they desire; because they can only obtain temporary jobs when they desire permanent employment; or because they cannot get jobs which are commensurate with their education, skill levels, and experience. Although underemployment is certainly more common and harder to escape when the job market is weak, some level of underemployment persists even in good economic times.
KeywordsLabor Market Citizenship Behavior Psychological Contract Counterproductive Work Behavior Contingent Worker
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