Underemployment – when workers are employed in jobs which are substandard relative to their goals and expectations – is a problem faced by increasing numbers of individuals in industrialized nations around the world. Individuals can experience underemployment because they cannot work as many hours as they desire; because they can only obtain temporary jobs when they desire permanent employment; or because they cannot get jobs which are commensurate with their education, skill levels, and experience. Although underemployment is certainly more common and harder to escape when the job market is weak, some level of underemployment persists even in good economic times.


Labor Market Citizenship Behavior Psychological Contract Counterproductive Work Behavior Contingent Worker 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Clogg, C. C., & Sullivan, T. A. (1983). Demographic composition of underemployment trends, 1969–1980. Social Indicators Research, 12, 117–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Evans, G. (1915). The social aspects of the public regulation of wages. American Economic Review, 5, 270–277.Google Scholar
  3. Feldman, D. C. (1996). The nature, antecedents and consequences of underemployment. Journal of Management, 22, 385–407. doi:10.1177/014920639602200302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Friedland, D., & Price, R. (2003). Underemployment: Consequences for the health and well-being of workers. American Journal of Community Psychology, 32, 33–45. doi:10.1023/A:1025638705649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyState University of New York at New PaltzNew PaltzUSA
  2. 2.Terry College of Business, University of GeorgiaAthensUSA

Personalised recommendations