Brain Ischemia pp 237-284 | Cite as

Primary Neuroprotection

  • Eugene Gusev
  • Veronica I. Skvortsova

Abstract

Primary neuroprotection is aimed at disruption of the earliest events of the ischemic cascade occurring within the therapeutic window and underlying the fast necrotic damage of brain tissue (Table 14.1).

Table 14.1.

Main directions of the primary neuroprotection

Direction

Basic drug groups

Representatives

Present state of study

Potential-dependent calcium channel antagonists

Dihydropiridines

Nimodipine

Efficacy is not proven

  

Daropidine (PY 108-068)

Efficacy is not proven, X

  

Israpidine

Severe adverse effects, X

  

Flunarizine

Efficacy is not proven, X

  

Cerebrokast

Efficacy is not proven, X

Glutamate receptors antagonists

NMDA receptor antagonists non-competitive

Dizopcipine, MK-801

Severe adverse effects, X

  

Dextrorphan

Severe adverse effects, X

  

Dextromethorphan

Severe adverse effects, X

  

Cerestat (CNS-1102, aptiganel hydrochloride)

Severe adverse effects, X

  

Remacemide hydrochloride

Studies are in progress

  

Magnesium sulfate

Studies are in progress

 

competitive

Selfotel (CGS-19755)

Severe adverse effects, X

 

selecyive:

  
 

- polyamines site blockers

Eliprodil (SL-82.0715)

Efficacy is not proven, X

 

- glycine site blockers

Gavestinel (GV-150526A)

 
  

Licostinel (ACEA-1021)

Efficacy is not proven

 

AMPA receptors antagonosts

NBQX

Severe adverse effects, X

  

ZK 200775

Severe adverse effects, X

Inhibbitors of synthesis and pre-synaptic release of glutamate

 

BW-619C89

Severe adverse effects, X

  

Propentofylline

Severe adverse effects, X

  

Phenytoin

Efficacy is not proven

  

Fos-Phenytoin

Efficacy is not proven

  

Lubeluzole

Efficacy is not proven, X

GABA agonists

 

Chlomethiazole

Studies in Progress

Glycine

 

Glycine

Studies in Progress

Notes: X - trials are stopped

Keywords

Ischemia Neurol Lamotrigine Quinoxalinedione Muscimol 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eugene Gusev
    • 1
  • Veronica I. Skvortsova
    • 1
  1. 1.Russian State Medical UniversityMoscowRussia

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