• George J. Klir
  • Doug Elias
Part of the IFSR International Series on Systems Science and Engineering book series (IFSR, volume 21)


The evolution of a highly complex hierarchy of disciplinary specializations has been one of the major characteristics of the history of science. The ancient scientist/philosopher such as Aristotle, who was able to comprehend almost all knowledge available in his time, has gradually been replaced by generations of scientists with ever-increasing depth of knowledge and narrowness of interest and competence.


Symbios Subsy 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • George J. Klir
    • 1
  • Doug Elias
    • 2
  1. 1.State University of New York at BinghamtonBinghamtonUSA
  2. 2.Cornell UniversityIthacaUSA

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