Distinguishing between Fertilization Failure and Early Pregnancy Loss when Identifying Male-Mediated Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

  • Sally D. Perreault
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 518)


Successful reproduction depends upon the precise orchestration of many physiological processes. With respect to male reproductive performance, normal copulatory behavior and ejaculatory function are required to insure that semen is deposited in the female tract. Then, a sufficient number of sperm must reach the site of fertilization at the optimal time for the oocyte to be fertilized, and those sperm that reach the oocyte must be capable of fertilizing the egg (binding and penetrating the zona pellucida and fusing with the oolemma). Finally, the fused spermatozoon must be intact genetically in order to support normal embryonic and postnatal development.


Preimplantation Embryo Reproductive Toxicity Early Pregnancy Loss Fertilization Failure Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sally D. Perreault
    • 1
  1. 1.Reproductive Toxicology DivisionU.S. EPA, ORD, NHEERL Research Triangle ParkUSA

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