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Immunologic Tolerance as Taught by Allografts

  • William J. Burlingham
  • Jose Torrealba
Chapter

Abstract

Tolerance, or the remarkable ability of the immune system to recognize and destroy invading pathogens, while refraining from the destruction of self tissues, has fascinated immunologists for over half a century. It is quite clear that self-reactive T- and B-cells do exist in the peripheral immune system. What prevents the unleashing of their destructive power in normal individuals? The natural allograft of the mammalian fetus to its mother, and the clinical practice of organ and tissue transplantation between genetically distinct individuals can teach us the answer. Both feature the confrontation of two separate immune systems: the mother’s with the baby’s, or the immune system of the recipient with the “mini” immune system contained within the organ or tissue being transplanted. The work of transplant tolerance consists in reaching accommodation between these two systems (allotolerance), while avoiding autoimmunity to tissue antigens of the graft. This chapter will explore important concepts that have emerged from studies of natural and surgical transplants beginning with the discovery of acquired tolerance in the period 1945-53 up to the present. These concepts include:

Keywords

Chronic Rejection Indirect Pathway Immunologic Tolerance Kidney Transplant Patient Kidney Allograft 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • William J. Burlingham
    • 1
  • Jose Torrealba
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryUniversity of Wisconsin School of MedicineMadison
  2. 2.Department of PathologyUniversity of Wisconsin School of MedicineMadison

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