Advertisement

Development of the Mouse External Genitalia: Unique Model of Organogenesis

  • Kentaro Suzuki
  • Kohei Shiota
  • Yanding Zhang
  • Lei Lei
  • Gen Yamada
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 545)

Abstract

The mammalian external genitalia develop highly specialized structures suitable for efficient internal fertilization. The advent of molecular developmental biology has led to the accumulation of large amounts of data regarding mammalian organogenesis. However, there is not much research on the development of external genitalia (Cunha and Lung, 1979, Dolle et al., 1991; Kondo et al., 1997; Warot et al., 1997). Even recent molecular analyses of this organ utilize embryological observations often dated several decades ago.

Keywords

External Genitalia Limb Development Ventral Midline Urogenital Sinus Apical Ectodermal Ridge 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Baskin, L.S., 2000, Hypospadias and urethral development.J. Urol. 163:951–956.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Baskin, L.S., Erol, A., Jegatheesan, P., Li, Y.W., Liu, W.H., Cunha, G.R., 2001, Urethral seam formation and hyposapadisa.Cell. Tissue. Res. 305:379–387.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bellusci, S., Grindley, J., Emoto, H., Itoh, N. and Hogan, B. L., 1997, Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) and branching morphogenesis in the embryonic mouse lung.Development 124:4867–4878.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Brennan, J., Karl, J., Martineau, J., Nordqvist, K., Schmahl, J., Tilmann, C., Ung, K., and Capel, B., 1998, Sry and the testis: molecular pathways of organogenesis.J. Exp. Zool. 281:494–500.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Cohn, M. J., Izpisua-Belmonte, J.C., Abud, H., Heath, J. K. and Tickle, C., 1995, Fibroblast growth factors induce additional limb development from the flank of chick embryos.Ce1180:739–746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Crossley, P. H., and Martin, G. R., 1995, The mouse FGF8 gene encodes a family of polypeptides and is expressed in regions that direct outgrowth and patterning in the developing embryo.Development 121:439–451.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Crossley, P. H., Minowada, G., MacArthur, C.A., and Martin, G.R., 1996, Roles for FGF8 in the induction, initiation, and maintenance of chick limb development.Cell 84:127–136.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Cunha, G. R., Lung, B., 1979, The importance of stroma in morphogenesis and functional activity of urogenital epithelium.In Vitro 15(1):50–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Dolle, P.,.Izpisua-Belmonte, J. C., Brown, J. M., Tickle, C., and Duboule, D., 1991, HOX-4 genes and the morphogenesis of mammalian genitalia.Gene. Dev. 5:17–67. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Duboule, D., 1993, The function of Hox genes in the morphogenesis of the vertebrate limb.Ann. Genet. 36:24–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Glenister, T. W., 1954, The origin and fate of the urehral plate in man.Anat. 88:413–425.Google Scholar
  12. Goff, D. J. and Tabin, C. J., 1996, Hox mutations au naturel [news].Nat. Genet. 13:256–258.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Gofflot, F., Hall, M., and Morriss-Kay, G.M., 1997, Genetic patterning of the developing mouse tail at the time of posterior neuropore closureDev. Dyn 210:431–445.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Goldman, D.C., Martin, G.R., and Tam, P.P.L., 2000, Fate and function of the ventral ectodermal ridge during mouse tail development.Development 127:2113–2123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Haraguchi, R., Suzuki, K., Murakami, R., Sakai, M., Kamikawa, M., Kengaku, M., Sekine, K., Kawano, H., Kato, S., Ueno, N., and Yamada, G., 2000, Molecular analysis of external genitalia formation: the role of fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) genes during genital tubercle formation.Development 127:2471–2479.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Haraguchi, R., Mo, R., Hui, C.C., Motoyama, J., Makino, S., Shiroishi, T., Gaffield, W., and Yamada, G., 2001, Unique functions of Sonic hedgehog signaling during external genitalia development.Development 128:4241–4250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Ikeda, Y., Shen, W.H., Ingraham, H.A., and Parker, K. L., 1994, Developmental expression of mouse steroidogenic factor-1, an essential regulator of the steroid hydroxylases.Mol. Endocrinol. 8:654–662CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Jegou, B., Laws, A. O., and de Kretser, D. M., 1983, The effect of cryptorchidism and subsequent orchidopexy on testicular function in adult rats.J. Reprod. Fertil. 69:137–145.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Johnson, R. L., and Tabin, C. J., 1997, Molecular models for vertebrate limb development.Cell 90:979–990.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Kochhar, D. M., 1973, Limb development in mouse embryos. I. Analysis of teratogenic effects of retinoic acid.Teratology7: 289–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kochhar, D. M., 1985, Skeletal morphogenesis: comparative effects of a mutant gene and a teratogen.Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. 171:267–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Kondo, T., Zakany, J., Innis, J. W., and Duboule, D., 1997, Of fingers, toes and penises.Nature 390:29. Kurzrock, E. A., Baskin, L. S., and Cunha, G. R., 1999, Ontogeny of the male urethra: theory of endodermal differentiation.Differentiation 64:115–122.Google Scholar
  23. Kurzrock, E. A., Jegatheesan, P., Cunha, G. R., and Baskin, L. S., 2000, Urethral development in the fetal rabbit and induction of hypospadias: a model for human development.J. Urol. 164:1786–1792.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Martin, G. R., 1998, The roles of FGFs in the early development of vertebrate limbs.Gene. Dev. 12:1571–1586.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Mercader, N., Leonardo, E., Piedra, M. E., Martinez, A. C., Ros, M. A., and Torres, M., 2000, Opposing RA and FGF signals control proximodistal vertebrate limb development through regulation of meis genes.Development 127:3961–3970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Min, H., Danilenko, D. M., Scully, S. A., Bolon, B., Ring, B. D., Tarpley, J. E., DeRose, M., and Simonet, W. S., 1998, FGF10 is required for both limb and lung development and exhibits striking functional similarity to Drosophila branchless.Genes. Dev. 12:3156–3161.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Moon, A. M., and Capecchi, M. R., M. R., 2000, FGF8 is required for outgrowth and patterning of the limbs [In Process Citation].Nat. Genet. 26:455–459.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Mortlock, D. P., and Innis, J. W., 1997, Mutation of HOXA13 in hand-foot-genital syndrome.Nat. Genet15:179–180.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Murakami, R., 1987, A histological study of the development of the penis of wild-type and androgen-insensitive mice.J. Anat. 153:223–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Ogino, Y., Suzuki, K., Haraguchi, R., Satoh, Y., Dolle, P., and Yamada, G., 2001, External genitalia formation: Role of fibroblast growth factor, retinoic acid signaling and distal urethral epithelium (DUE).Ann.N.Y.AcadSci. 948:13–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ohuchi, H., Yoshioka, H., Tanaka, A., Kawakami, Y., Nohno, T., and Noji, S., 1994, Involvement of androgen-induced growth factor (FGF8) gene in mouse embryogenesis and morphogenesis.Biochem. Biophys. Res.Commun. 204:882–888.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Ohuchi, H., Nakagawa, T., Yamamoto, A., Araga, A., Ohata, T., Ishimaru, Y., Yoshioka, H., Kuwana, T., Nohno, T., Yamasaki, M., Itoh, N., and Noji, S., 1997,The mesenchymal factor, FGF10, initiates and maintains the outgrowth of the chick limb bud through interaction with FGF8, an apical ectodermal factor.Development. 124:2235–2244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Ohuchi, H., Noji, S., 1999, Fibroblast-growth-factor-induced additional limbs in the study of initiation of limb formation, limb identity, myogenesis, and innervation.Cell. Tissue. Res. 296:45–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Ornitz, D. M., 2000, FGFs, heparan sulfate and FGFRs: complex interactions essential for development.Bioessays 22:108–112.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. PerritonC.L., Fowles, N., Chiang, C., Maconochie, M. K., and Cohn, M. J., 2002, Sonic hedgehog signaling from the urethral epithelium controls external genital development.Dev Biol.Jul1;247(1):26–46.Google Scholar
  36. Sekine, K., Ohuchi, H., Fujiwara, M., Yamasaki, M., Yoshizawa, T., Sato, T., Yagishita, N., Matsui, D., Koga, Y., Itoh, N., and Kato, S., 1999, FGF 10 is essential for limb and lung formation.Nat. Genet. 21:138–141.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Sun, X., Mariani, F. V., and Martin, G. R., 2002, Functions of FGF signaling from the apical ectodermal ridge in limb development.Nature.418: 501–508.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Suzuki, K.,. Ogino, Y., Murakami, R., Satoh, Y., Bachiller, D., and Yamada, G., 2002, Embryonic development of mouse external genitalia: insights into a unique mode of organogenesis.4:2133–141.Google Scholar
  39. Tickle, C. and Eichele, G., 1994, Vertebrate limb development.Annu. Rev. Cell Biol. 10:121–152. van der Werfl; J. F., Ultee, J., 2000, Long-term follow-up of hypospadias repair.Br J Plast Surg.53(7): 588–592.Google Scholar
  40. Wall, N. A., and Hogan, B. L., 1995, Expression of bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4), bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7), fibroblast growth factor-8 (FGF-8) and sonic hedgehog (SHH) during branchial arch development in the chick.Mech. Dev. 53:383–392.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Warot, X., Fromental Ramain, C., Fraulob, V., Chambon, P., and Dolle, P., 1997, Gene dosage-dependent effects of theHoxa-13andHoxd-13mutations on morphogenesis of the terminal parts of the digestive and urogenital tracts.Development 124:4781–4791.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Weidner, I. S., Moller, H., Jensen, T. K., and Skakkebaek, N. E., 1998, Cryptorchidism and hypospadias in sons of gardeners and farmers.Environ Health Perspect 106:793–796.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Weidner, I. S., Moller, H., Jensen, T. K., and Skakkebaek, N. E., 1999, Risk factors for cryptorchidism and hypospadias. J.Urol. 161:1606–1609.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Yamaguchi, T. P., Bradley, A., McMahon, A. P., and Jones, S., 1999, AWnt5apathway underlies outgrowth of multiple structures in the vertebrate embryo.Development 126:1211–1223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Yamasaki, M., Miyake, A., Tagashira, S., and Itoh, N., 1996, Structure and expression of the rat mRNA encoding a novel member of the fibroblast growth factor family.J. Biol. Chem. 271:15918–15921CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Yonei-Tamura, S., Endo, T., Yajima, H., Ohuchi, H., Ide, H., and Tamura, K., 1999, FGF7 and FGF10 directly induce the apical ectodermal ridge in chick embryos.Dev. Biol. 211(1):133–143.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kentaro Suzuki
    • 1
  • Kohei Shiota
    • 2
  • Yanding Zhang
    • 3
  • Lei Lei
    • 1
  • Gen Yamada
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Animal Resources and Development (CARD) and Graduate School of Molecular Genomic PharmacyKumamoto UniversityKumamotoJapan
  2. 2.Congenital Anomaly Research Center and Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Graduate School of MedicineKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  3. 3.College of BioengineeringFujian Teachers University, FuzhouFujianChina

Personalised recommendations