Hearing Organ Evolution and Specialization: Archosaurs

  • Otto Gleich
  • Franz Peter Fischer
  • Christine Köppl
  • Geoffrey A. Manley
Part of the Springer Handbook of Auditory Research book series (SHAR, volume 22)


Among amniotes a group named archosaurs includes the crocodilians, extinct dinosaurs, and birds (see Phylogeny, below). Because of these evolutionary relationships, the archosaurs are considered together in this chapter. The available data on inner-ear structure and function from different archosaur species (various birds and Caiman crocodilus) is combined and reviewed, in an attempt to identify the putative primitive condition and subsequent specializations that occurred during evolution.


Hair Cell Zebra Finch Basilar Membrane Innervation Pattern Basilar Papilla 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Otto Gleich
  • Franz Peter Fischer
  • Christine Köppl
  • Geoffrey A. Manley

There are no affiliations available

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