Size and Shape Analysis



Microscopy is an excellent tool for determining particle size and shape. Although there are much faster and more precise analytical techniques for measuring particle size, microscopy does have some particular advantages in size measurements. Microscopy is the only method that can yield qualitative and quantitative estimates of particle shape. This chapter is dedicated to the subject of size and shape measurements using the microscope.


Drug Product Drug Substance Naproxen Sodium Magnesium Stearate Carbon Black Particle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Adrich DS, Smith MA (1995) Practical Applications of Infrared Microspectroscopy. Humecki HJ ed. Practical Guide to Infrared Microspectroscopy. Marcel Dekkar, Inc New York, pp 323–375 [Also reprinted in Applied Spectroscopy Reviews, (1999) 34(4):275–327]Google Scholar
  2. Allen T (1997) Particle Size Measurement Volume 1: Powder Sampling and Particle Size Measurement. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  3. Carlton RA (2010) Image Analysis of EDS and Backscatter SEM Images of Pharmaceutical Tablets. Micros and Microanal, 16(Suppl. 2): pp 662–663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carlton RA, Englehart S (2005). Errors in Optical Microscope Measurements Using Image Analysis. Microscopy and Microanalysis 11(Suppl 2):1248–1249Google Scholar
  5. International Standard, ISO 13322-1 (2004): Particle Size Analysis – Image Analysis Methods, Part 1: Static Image analysis MethodsGoogle Scholar
  6. Larsen CC, Sonnergaard JM, Bertelsen P, Holm P (2003) Validation of an Image Analysis Method for Estimating Coating Thickness on Pellets. Eur J Pharm Sci 18:191–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Neilly J, Vogt A, Dziki W (2009) Characterization of Sticking Residue on Tablet Punch Faces by Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Mapping. Micros and Microanal 15(Suppl. 2): pp 18–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. United States Pharmacopeia, USP33: NF 28 (2010) Section <776> Optical MicroscopyGoogle Scholar
  9. Wang J, Wen H, Desai D (2010) Lubrication in Tablet Formulations. Eur J Pharm & Biopharm, 75:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Zingerman JP, Mehta SC, Salter JM, Radebaugh GW (1992) Validation of a Computerized Image Analysis System for Particle Size Determination: Pharmaceutical Applications. Int J Pharm 88:303–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals Physical PropertiesKing of PrussiaUSA

Personalised recommendations