New Perspectives on the Pitheciines
If the callitrichines were the first major group of platyrrhines to benefit scientifically from the explosion of interest in platyrrhine biology in the last two decades, the sakis and uakaris are the surprise discovery. They are the evolutionary secret of the New World monkey radiation, hidden until now by the lack of a sound framework for platyrrhine systematics, the absence of any glimmerings of a fossil record and sheer ignorance of their behavior and ecology. Much the same situation existed for callitrichines. For nearly a hundred years, scientists have debated one way or the other - Are the callithrichines primitive or are they derived? No such uncertainties were ever associated with “pitheciines”. Classifications dating to J.E. Gray and St. George Mivart in the middle 1800s show that taxono- mists even then treated the three modern genera, Pithecia, Chiropotes, and Cacajao as a divergent, natural group. In modern terms, this implies they are monophyletic, related more closely to one another than any are to living non-pitheciine platyrrhines. Until recently, this legacy was the upshot of“pitheciine” biology: sakis and uakaris are behaviorally enigmatic and structurally bizarre, but they are an evolutionary cohesive group.
KeywordsMiddle Miocene Seed Predator Terra Firme Loud Call Titi Monkey
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Ayres, J.M. 1981. Observaçōes sobre a ecologia e o comportamento dos cuxiõs (Chiropotes albinasus e Chiropo-tes satanas, Cebidae: Primates). Unpublished Master of Science Thesis, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazõnia e Fundaçâāo Universidade do Amazonas, Manaus, Brazil.Google Scholar
- Ayres, J.M. 1986. Uakaris and Amazonian flooded forest. PhD thesis, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
- Buchanan, D.B., Mittermeier, R.A., and van Roosmalen, M.G.M. 1981. The saki monkeys, genus Pithecia in: A.F. Coimbra-Filho, and R.A. Mittermeier(eds.), The Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, Vol. 1, pp. 371–417. Academia Brasiliera Ciências, Rio de Janeiro.Google Scholar
- Gleason, T.M., and Norconk, M.A. 1995. Intragroup spacing and agonistic interactions in white-faced sakis. Am. J. Primatol. 36:125.Google Scholar
- Happel, R.E., 1982. Ecology of Pithecia hirsuta in Peru. J. Hum. Evol. 11:581–590.Google Scholar
- Kinzey, W.G., Norconk, M.A., and Alvarez-Cordero, E. 1988. Primate survey of eastern Bolivar, Venezuela. Prim. Conserv. 9:66–70.Google Scholar
- Oliveira, J.M.S., Lima, M.G., Bonvicino, C, Ayres, J.M., and Fleagle, J.G. 1985. Preliminary notes on the ecology and behavior of the Guianan saki (Pithecia pithecia, Linnaeus 1766: Cebidae, Primates). Acta Amazonica 15:249–263.Google Scholar
- Robinson, J.G., Wright, PC, and Kinzey, W.G. 1987. Monogamous cebids and their relatives: Intergroup calls and spacing. In B.B. Smuts, D.L. Cheney, R.M. Seyfarth, R.W. Wrangham, T.T. Struhsaker (eds.), Primate Societies, pp. 44–53. Chicago University Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
- Ryan, K. 1985. Preliminary report on the social structure and alloparental care in Pithecia pithecia on an island in Guri reservoir, Venezuela. Am. J. Primatol. 36:187.Google Scholar
- Setz, E.Z.F. 1994. Ecologia alimentar de um groupo de parauacus (Pitheciapithecia chrysocephala) em um fragmento florestal na Amazonia Central. Boletim da Sociedade Brasiliera de Mastozoologia 28:5.Google Scholar
- Soini, P. 1986. A synecological study of a primate community in Pacaya-Saimiria National Reserve, Peru. Primate Conservation 7:63–71.Google Scholar