The Origin and Properties of Dust Impacting the Earth
The Earth accretes a complex variety of materials from space, currently accumulating at a rate of approximately 40,000 tons per year. The matter originates from comets, asteroids, the Moon, and the interstellar medium, although the relative contributions from these sources vary with both time and particle size. The particles from comets and asteroids are generally primitive solar system materials that are fine grained and commonly have elemental compositions close to CI chondrites. Although they are similar in elemental composition to primitive meteorites, many of the particles differ considerably in mineralogical composition. Incoming particles undergo a wide range of thermal transformation in the atmosphere depending on their size, composition, entry velocity, and entry angle. The final particulates that arrive at the Earth’s surface include 10 nm meteor condensates, cosmic spherules that totally melted during atmospheric entry, partly melted particles, and particles that survived atmospheric entry without any melting. In the terrestrial sediment environment, the particles are altered to differing degrees depending on the environment and the size and nature of the particles.
KeywordsOrdinary Chondrite Lunar Planet Kuiper Belt Interplanetary Dust Hydrated Silicate
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