Normal Modes

  • Finn B. Jensen
  • William A. Kuperman
  • Michael B. Porter
  • Henrik Schmidt
Part of the Modern Acoustics and Signal Processing book series (MASP)


Normal-mode methods have been used for many years in underwater acoustics. An early and widely cited reference is due to Pekeris [1], who developed the theory for a simple two-layer model of the ocean. At about the same time Ide et al. [2] had been using normal modes to interpret propagation in the Potomac River and Chesapeake Bay. Progress in the development of normal-mode methods is presented in an excellent summary given by Williams [3]. Numerical techniques now exist which can treat problems with an arbitrary number of fluid and viscoelastic layers.


Sound Speed Phase Speed Transmission Loss Scattered Field Richardson Extrapolation 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Finn B. Jensen
    • 1
  • William A. Kuperman
    • 2
  • Michael B. Porter
    • 3
  • Henrik Schmidt
    • 4
  1. 1.NATO Undersea Research CentreLa SpeziaItaly
  2. 2.Marine Physical Lab.Scripps Institution of OceanographyLa JollaUSA
  3. 3.Heat, Light, and Sound Research, Inc.La JollaUSA
  4. 4.Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)CambridgeUSA

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