In the year 1654 two gentlemen who were playing at a game of chance were interrupted, and the game was not completed. They asked the famous French mathematician Blaise Pascal to determine from the state of the game when they left the table a fair distribution of their wagers. Pascal wrote a letter to another French mathematician, Pierre Fermat, telling him of this problem. Each solved it, though in different ways. The mathematical theory of probability developed from their work.
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