Advertisement

Manufacture and Properties of Milk Powders

  • A. L. Kelly
  • J. E. O’Connell
  • P. F. Fox

Abstract

The first recoded reference to the manufacture of milk powder as a method for preserving milk was by Marco Polo, who observed the use of milk powder by Mongol soldiers in the 13th Century (Hall and Hedrick, 1975). The earliest modern commercial concentrated dairy products were air-dried concentrated milk tablets, developed in 1809, and vacuum-concentrated sweetened and unsweetened condensed milks, produced by Gail Borden in 1856. The second half of the 19th Century saw the production of solidified high-total solids milk products (Caríc and Kaláb, 1987). Roller drying was introduced around 1902 and rapidly became the predominant method for producing dried dairy products, such as infant formulae.

Keywords

Whey Protein Milk Powder Somatic Cell Count Skim Milk Powder Casein Micelle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. ADMI (1971) Standards for grades of dry milk including analysis, Bulletin 916, American Dry Milk Institute, Inc., Chicago, p. 26.Google Scholar
  2. Aguilar, C.A. and Ziegler, G.R. (1994a) Physical and microscopic characterization of dry whole milk with altered lactose content. 1. Effect of lactose concentration. J. Dairy Sci., 11, 1189–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aguilar, C.A. and Ziegler, G.R. (1994b) Physical and microscopic characterization of dry whole milk with altered lactose content. 2. Effect of lactose crystallisation. J. Dairy Sci., 11, 1198–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Al-Talib, N.A. (1984) Effect of Storage Conditions on Some Chemical, Physico-Chemical and Nutritional Properties of Skim Milk Powder, PhD Thesis, National University of Ireland, Cork.Google Scholar
  5. Augustin, M.A. (1991) Developing non-fat milk powders with specific functional properties. CSIRO Food Res. Quarterly Reports, 51, 16–22.Google Scholar
  6. Auldist, M.J., Coats, S.T., Sutherland, B.J., Clarke, P.T., McDowell, G.H. and Rogers, G.L. (1996) Effect of somatic cell count and stage of lactation on the quality of full cream milk powder. Aust. J. Dairy Technol., 51, 94–8.Google Scholar
  7. Baldwin, A.J. and Ackland, J.D. (1991) Effect of preheat treatment and storage on the properties of whole milk powder. Changes in physical and chemical properties. Neth. Milk Dairy J., 45, 169–81.Google Scholar
  8. Baldwin, A.J., Cooper, H.R. and Palmer, K.C. (1991) Effect of preheat treatment and storage on the properties of whole milk powder. Changes in sensory properties. Neth. Milk Dairy J., 45, 97–116.Google Scholar
  9. Berlin, E., Anderson, B.A. and Pallansch, M.J. (1968) Water vapour sorption properties of various dried milks and wheys. J. Dairy Sci., 51, 1339–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boersen, A.C. (1990) Spray drying technology — atomisation and straight through agglomeration. J. Soc. Dairy Technol., 43, 5–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boon, P.M. (1976) The effect of pre-heat treatment on the storage stability of whole milk powder. N.Z. J. Dairy Sci. Technol., 11, 278–80.Google Scholar
  12. Buma, T.J. (1971) Free fat in spray-dried whole milk. 1. General introduction and brief review of literature. Neth. Milk. Dairy J., 25, 33–41.Google Scholar
  13. Carie, M. and Kaláb, M. (1987) Effects of drying techniques on the milk powder quality and microstructure: A review. Food Microstruct., 6, 171–80.Google Scholar
  14. Celstino, E.L., Iyer, M. and Roginski, H. (1997a). The effects of refrigerated storage of raw milk on the quality of whole milk powder stored for different temperatures. Int. Dairy J., 1, 119–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Celstino, E.L., Iyer, M. and Roginski, H. (1997b) Reconstituted UHT-treated milk: Effects of raw milk, powder quality and storage conditions of UHT milk on its physico-chemical attributes and flavour. Int. Dairy J., 7, 129–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cheftel, J.-C. and Lorient, D. (1982) Les propriétés fonctionnelles des protéines laitiéres et leur amélioration. Lait, 62, 435–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chen, X.D. (1994) Towards a comprehensive model based control of milk drying process. Drying Technol., 12, 1105–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chen, X.D. and Lloyd, R.J. (1997) Some aspects of measuring the size and rate of dispersion of milk powder agglomerates using the Malvern Particle Sizer 2600c. J. Dairy Res., 61, 201–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chong, L.V., Shaw, I.R. and Chen, X.D. (1996) Exothermic reactivities of skim and whole milk powders as measured using a novel procedure. J. Food Eng., 30, 185–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Corredig, M. and Dalgleish, D.G. (1999) The mechanisms of heat-induced interaction of whey proteins with casein micelles in milk. Int. Dairy J., 9, 233–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Creamer, L.K. and Matheson, A.R. (1978) The effect of pH on protein aggregation in heated skim milk. N.Z. J. Dairy Sci. Technol., 13, 9–15.Google Scholar
  22. Daemen, A.L.H. (1984) The destruction of enzymes and bacteria during the spray-drying of milk and whey. 4. A comparison of theoretical computed results concerning the destruction of phosphatase with those obtained experimentally. Neth. Milk Dairy J., 38, 55–70.Google Scholar
  23. Dalgleish, D.G. (1979) Proteolysis and aggregation of casein micelles treated with immobilized or soluble chymosin. J. Dairy Res., 46, 643–61.Google Scholar
  24. Dalgleish, D.G. (1992) The enzymatic coagulation of milk, in Advanced Dairy Chemistry 1-Proteins, 2nd edn, Vol. 1, (P.F. Fox ed.) Elsevier Applied Science, London, pp. 579–620.Google Scholar
  25. Dalgleish, D.G. (1996) Food emulsions, in Emulsions and Emulsion Stability, (J. Sjöblom ed.) Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 287–31.Google Scholar
  26. Davies, D.T. and White, J.C.D. (1966) The stability of milk protein to heat. 1. Subjective measurement of heat stability of milk. J. Dairy Res., 33, 67–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. de Knegt, R.J. and van den Brink, H. (1998) Improvement of the drying oven method for the determination of the moisture content of milk powder. Int. Dairy J., 8, 733–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dewettinck, K., de Moor, H. and Huyghebaert, A. (1996) The free fat content of dried milk products and flow properties of milk chocolate. Milchwissenschaft, 51, 25–8.Google Scholar
  29. de Wit, J.N. (1981) Structure and functional behaviour of whey proteins. Neth. Milk Dairy J., 35, 47–64.Google Scholar
  30. Doka, O., Ajtony, Z., Bicanic, D. and Koehorst, R. (2000) Assessing the extent of degradation in the UV radiation and heat-catalysed oxidised whole milk powder: the UV photoacoustic and diffuse reflectance spectroscopies versus the peroxide value. Appl. Spect., 54, 1405–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Driscoll, N.R., Brennard, C.P. and Hendricks, D.G. (1985) Sensory quality of nonfat dry milk after long-term storage. J. Dairy Sci., 68, 1931–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Early, R. (1990) The use of high-fat and specialized milk powders. J. Soc. Dairy Technol., 43, 53–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Early, R. (1998) Milk concentrates and milk powders, in The Technology of Dairy Products, 2nd edn, (R. Early ed.) Blackie Academic and Professional, London, pp. 228–300.Google Scholar
  34. El-Gazzar, F.E. and Marth, E.H. (1991) Ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis in dairy technology: a review. J. Food Prot., 54, 801–9.Google Scholar
  35. Euston, S.R. and Hirst, R.L. (1999) Comparison of the concentration-dependent emulsifying properties of protein products containing aggregated and non-aggregated milk protein. Int. Dairy J., 10, 693–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fairise, J.-F., Cayot, P. and Lorient, D. (1999) Characterisation of the protein composition of casein micelles after heating. Int. Dairy J., 9, 249–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fox, P.F. (1981) Heat-induced changes in milk preceding coagulation. J. Dairy Sci., 64, 2127–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Friedman, M. (1977) Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, Volume 86B: Protein Crosslinking. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  39. Garem, A., Schuck, P. and Maubois, J.-L. (2000) Cheesemaking properties of a new dairy-based powder made by a combination of microfiltration and ultrafiltration. Lait, 80, 25–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Guo, M.R., Hendricks, G.M., Kinstedt, P.S., Flynn, A. and Fox, P.F. (1996) Nitrogen and mineral distribution in infant formulae. Int. Dairy J., 6, 963–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hall, C.W. and Hedrick, T.I. (1975) Drying of Milk and Milk Products, AVI Publishing Co. Ltd., Westport, CT.Google Scholar
  42. Hansen, R. (1985) Evaporation, Membrane Filtration and Spray Drying in Milk Powder and Cheese Production, North European Dairy Journal, Vanløse, Denmark.Google Scholar
  43. Heldman, D.R., Hall, C.H. and Hedrick, T.I. (1965) Vapor equilibrium relationships of dry milk. J. Dairy Sci., 48, 845–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hols, G. and van Mil, P.J.J.M. (1991) An alternative process for the manufacture of whole milk powder. J. Soc. Dairy Technol., 44, 49–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Holsinger, V.H., McAloon, A.J., Onwulata, C.I. and Smith, P.W. (2000) Cost analysis of encapsulated spray-dried milk fat. J. Dairy Sci., 83, 2361–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Horton, B.S. (1997) What ever happened to the ultrafiltration of milk? Aust. J. Dairy Technol., 52, 47–9.Google Scholar
  47. Hough, G., Martinez, E. and Barbieri, T. (1992) Sensory thresholds of flavor defects in reconstituted whole milk powder. J. Dairy Sci., 75, 2370–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. IDF (1978) Dried milk — Determination of titratable acidity. Standard 86. International Dairy Federation, Brussels.Google Scholar
  49. IDF (1979) Determination of the dispersibility and wettability of instant dried milk. Standard 87. International Dairy Federation, Brussels.Google Scholar
  50. IDF (1986) Dried milk and dried milk products — determination of bulk density. Standard 134. International Dairy Federation, Brussels.Google Scholar
  51. IDF (1988a) Milk based instant foods determination of fat content — Röse-Gottlieb method. Standard 123 A. International Dairy Federation, Brussels.Google Scholar
  52. IDF (1988b) Dried milk and dried milk products — determination of insolubility index. Standard 129A. International Dairy Federation, Brussels.Google Scholar
  53. IDF (1993a) Milk. Determination of nitrogen content (Kjeldahl method). Standard 20B. International Dairy Federation, Brussels.Google Scholar
  54. IDF (1993b) Dried milk and dried cream — determination of water content. Standard 26B. International Dairy Federation, Brussels.Google Scholar
  55. Jensen, J.D. (1975) Some recent advances in agglomeration, instantising and spray drying. Food Technol., 29(6), 60–71.Google Scholar
  56. Jimenez-Flores, R. and Kosikowski, F.W. (1986) Properties of ultrafiltered skim milk powder retentate. J. Dairy Sci., 69, 329–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Jones, A.D., Tier, C.M. and Wilkins, J.P.G. (1998) Analysis of the Maillard reaction products of β-lactoglobulin and lactose in skimmed milk powder by capillary electrophoresis and electrospray mass spectroscopy. J. Chromatogr. A, 822, 147–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jost, R., Maire, J.-C., Maynard, F. and Secretin, M.-C. (1999) Aspects of whey protein usage in infant nutrition, a brief review. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol., 34, 533–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Jouppila, K. and Roos, Y.H. (1994a) Water sorption and time dependent phenomena of milk powders. J. Dairy Sci., 11, 1798–808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Jouppila, K. and Roos, Y.H. (1994b) Glass transitions and crystallization in milk powder. J. Dairy Sci., 11, 2907–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Jouppila, K., Kansikas, J. and Roos, Y.H. (1997) Glass transition, water plasticisation, and lactose crystallization in skim milk powder. J. Dairy Sci., 80, 3152–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Keen, A.R., Boon, P.M. and Walker, N.J. (1976) Off-flavours in stored milk powder. 1. Isolation of monocarbonyl classes. N.Z. J. Dairy Sci. Technol., 11, 180–8.Google Scholar
  63. Kelly, P.M. (1982) The effect of preheat temperature and urea addition on the seasonal variation in the heat stability of skim-milk powder. J. Dairy Res., 49, 187–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kelly, P.M., Kelly, J., Mehra, R., Oldfield, D.J., Raggett, E. and O’Kennedy, B.T. (2000) Implementation of integrated membrane processes for pilot scale development of fractionated milk components. Lait, 80, 139–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kiesecker, F.G. and Aitken, B. (1988) An objective method for determination of heat stability of milk powders. Aust. J. Dairy Technol., 43, 26–31.Google Scholar
  66. Kiesecker, F.G. and Aitken, B. (1993) Recombined full-cream milk powder. Aust J. Dairy Technol., 48, 33–7.Google Scholar
  67. Kieseker, F.G. and Pearce, R.J. (1978) Producing heat stable milk powder. CSIRO Food Res. Quarterly, 38, 35–40.Google Scholar
  68. Kieseker, F.G. and Healy, D. (1996) Protein-adjusted non-fat milk powders. Aust. J. Dairy Technol., 51, 83–8.Google Scholar
  69. Kyle, W.S.A. (1993) Powdered milk, in Encyclopedia of Food Science, Food Technology and Nutrition, (R. McCrae, R.K. Robinson and M.J. Sadler eds.) Academic Press, New York, pp. 3700–13.Google Scholar
  70. Le Great, Y. and Brule, G. (1982) Effect of concentration and drying on mineral equilibria in skim milk and retentates. Lait, 62, 113–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lenoir, J., Remeuf, F. and Schneid, N. (2000) Cheesemaking milk, in Cheesemaking: From Science to Quality Assurance, (A. Eck and J.-C. Gillis eds.) Lavoisier Publishing, Paris, pp. 280–96.Google Scholar
  72. Liang, J.-H. (2000) Kinetics of fluorescence formation in whole milk powder during oxidation. Food Chem., 71, 459–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Litman, I.I. and Ashworth, U.S. (1957) Insoluble scum-like materials on reconstituted whole milk powders. J. Dairy Sci., 40, 403–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Mahran, G.A., El-Ghandour, M.A., El-Bagoury, E.H. and Sayed, A.F. (1984) Effect of skim milk powder storage on ice cream quality. Egyptian J. Dairy Sci., 12, 267–73.Google Scholar
  75. Masters, K. (1991) Spray Drying Handbook. Longman Scientific and Technical, Harlow, U.K.Google Scholar
  76. McCluskey, S., Connolly, J.F., Devery, R., O’B rien, B., Kelly, J., Harrington, D. and Stanton, C. (1997) Lipid and cholesterol oxidation in whole milk powder during processing and storage. J. Food Sci., 62, 331–7.Google Scholar
  77. McGookin, B.J. and Augustin, M.A. (1997) Antioxidant activity of a heated casein-glucose mixture in full cream milk powder. Aust. J. Dairy Technol., 52, 15–9.Google Scholar
  78. McKenna, A.B. (1997) Examination of whole milk powder by confocal laser scanning microscopy. J. Dairy Res., 64, 423–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. McKenna, A.B., Lloyd, R.J., Munro, P.A. and Singh, H. (1999) Microstructure of whole milk powder and of insolubles detected by powder functional testing. Scanning, 21, 305–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Mettler, A.E. (1980) Utilization of whey by-products for infant feeding. J. Soc. Dairy Technol., 33, 67–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Mistry, V.V. and Hassan, H.N. (1991) Delactosed high milk protein powder. 2. Physical and functional properties. J. Dairy Sci., 74, 3716–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Mistry, V.V. and Pulgar, J.B. (1996) Physical and storage properties of high milk protein powder. Int. Dairy J., 6, 195–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Mohammed, K.S. and Fox, P.F(1987) Heat-induced microstructural changes in casein micelles before and after coagulation. N.Z. J. Dairy Sci. Technol., 22, 191–203.Google Scholar
  84. Morrissey, P.A. (1969) The rennet hysteresis of heated milk. J. Dairy Res., 36, 333–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Muir, D.D. (1980) Concentration and milk powder quality, in Milk and Whey Powders, Society of Dairy Technology, Middlesex, UK, pp. 73–84.Google Scholar
  86. Muir, D.D. and Sweetsur, A.W.M. (1984) Optimization of the heat stability of protein-rich concentrates prepared by ultrafiltration of skim-milk. J. Food Technol., 19, 263–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Mulvihill, D.M. and Murphy, P.C. (1991) Surface active and emulsifying properties of caseins/caseinates as influenced by state of aggregation. Int. Dairy J., 1, 13–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Munns, R.J. (1989) Optimising milk powders for consumer use. Food Aust., 41, 938–40.Google Scholar
  89. Munns, R.J. (1991) High fat and full cream powders as food ingredients. CSIRO Food Res. Quarterly Reports, 51, 23–8.Google Scholar
  90. Nanua, J.N., McGregor, J.U. and Godbert, J.S. (2000) Influence of high-oryzanol rice bran oil on the oxidative stability of whole milk powder. J. Dairy Sci., 83, 2426–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Neff, E. and Morris, H.A.L. (1967) Agglomeration of milk powder and its influence on reconstitution properties. J. Dairy Sci., 51, 330–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Newstead, D.F., Baldwin, A.J. and Hughes, I.R. (1978) Factors affecting the viscosity of recombined sweetened condensed milk. N.Z. J. Dairy Sci. Technol., 13, 65–70.Google Scholar
  93. Nielsen, B., Staplefeldt, H. and Skibsted, L.H. (1997a) Early prediction of the shelf-life of medium-heat whole milk powders using stepwise multiple regression and principal component analysis. Int. Dairy J., 7, 341–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Nielsen, B., Staplefeldt, H. and Skibsted, L.H. (1997b) Differentiation between 15 whole milk powders in relation to oxidative stability during accelerated storage: analysis of variance and canonical variable analysis. Int. Dairy J., 7, 589–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Nieuwenhuijse, J.A., Timmermans, W. and Walstra, P. (1988) Calcium and phosphate paritions during the manufacture of sterilised concentrated milk and their relations to heat stability. Neth. Milk Dairy J., 42, 387–421.Google Scholar
  96. Niro Atomiser A/S (1978) Analytical Methods for Dry Milk Products, 4th edn, Niro Atomiser A/S, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  97. Noh, B. and Richardson, T. (1989) Incorporation of radiolabelled whey proteins into the casein micelles by heat processing. J. Dairy Sci., 72, 1724–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Nursten, H.E. (1981) Recent developments in studies of the Maillard reaction. Food Chem., 6, 263–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. O’Connell, J.E. and Fox, P.F. (1999) Heat-induced changes in the calcium sensitivity of caseins. Int. Dairy J., 9, 839–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. O’Connell, J.E. and Fox, P.F. (2000) Heat stability of buttermilk. J. Dairy Sci., 83, 1728–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. O’Connell, J.E. and Fox, P.F. (2001) Significance and possible applications of phenolic compounds in the production and quality of milk and dairy products. A review. Int. Dairy J., 11, 103–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. O’Donnell, C.P., McKenna, B.M. and Herlihy, N. (1996) Drying of skim milk: opportunities for reduced steam. Drying Technol., 14, 513–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. O’Sullivan, E.A., Kelly, P.M., Fitzgerald, R.J., O’Farrell, K., Murphy, M.F. and Harrington, D. (1999) Effect of β-lactoglobulin phenotype on whey protein nitrogen index and sulphydryl content of skim milk powder. Lait, 79, 229–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Oldfield, D.J. (1998) Heat Induced Whey Protein Reactions in Milk: Kinetics of Denaturation and Aggregation as Related to Milk Powder Manufacture, PhD Thesis, Massey University, Palmerstown North, New Zealand.Google Scholar
  105. Oldfield, D.J., Teehan, C.M. and Kelly, P.M. (2000) The effect of preheat treatment and other process parameters on the coffee stability of instant whole milk powder. Int. Dairy J., 10, 659–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Ontwulata, C.I., Konstance, R.P. and Holsinger, V.H. (1996) Flow properties of encapsulated milkfat powders as affected by flow agents. J. Food Sci., 61, 1211–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Parodi, P.W. (1996) Milk fat components: possible chemopreventative agents for cancer and other diseases. Aust. J. Dairy Technol., 51, 24–32.Google Scholar
  108. Parris, N., White, A.E. and Farrell, H.M., Jr. (1990) Identification of altered proteins in nonfat dry milk powder prepared from heat-treated skim milk. J. Agric. Food Chem., 38, 824–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Patel, R.S. and Mistry, V.V. (1997) Physicochemical and structural properties of ultrafiltered buffalo milk and milk powder. J. Dairy Sci., 80, 812–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Pellegrino, L., Resimini, L. and Luf, W. (1995) Assessment (indices) of heat treatment of milk, in, Heat-Induced Changes in Milk, (P.F. Fox ed.) Special Issue 9501, International Dairy Federation, Brussels, pp. 419–53.Google Scholar
  111. Pellegrino, L., van Boekel, M.A.J.S., Gruppen, H., Resmini, P. and Pagani, M.A. (1999) Heat-induced aggregation and covalent linkages in β-casein model system. Int. Dairy J., 9, 255–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Písecký, J. (1978) Bulk density of milk powders. Food Technol., 43, 4–7.Google Scholar
  113. Piseckí, J. (1997) Handbook of Milk Powder Manufacture, Niro A/S, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  114. Radayeva, I.A., Dmitrieva, L.S. and Bekhova, E.A. (1974) The effect of added antioxidants on keeping quality and on phospholipid fractions of whole milk powder. Proc. XIX International Dairy Congr. (New Delhi) E618.Google Scholar
  115. Refstrup, E. (1995) Advances in spray drying of food products. J. Soc. Dairy Technol., 48, 50–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Rennie, P.R., Chen, X.D., Hargreaves, C. and Mackerth, A.R. (1999) A study of cohesion of milk powders. J. Food Eng., 39, 277–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Richards, E.L. (1963) A quantitative study of the changes in dried skim-milk and lactose casein in the ‘dry’ state during storage. J. Dairy Res., 30, 223–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Roetman, K. (1979) Crystalline lactose and the structure of spray-dried milk products as observed by scanning electron microscopy. Neth. Milk Dairy J., 33, 1–11.Google Scholar
  119. Saboya, L.V. and Maubois, J.-L. (2000) Current developments of microfiltration technology in the dairy industry. Lait, 80, 541–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Saito, Z. (1985) Particle structure in spray-dried whole milk and in instant skim milk powder as related to lactose crystallisation. Food Microstruct., 4, 333–40.Google Scholar
  121. Saltmarch, M. and Labuza, T.P. (1980) Influence of the physicochemical state of lactose in spray-dried sweet-whey powders. J. Food Sci., 45, 1231–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Sanderson, W.B. (1970) Seasonal variations affecting the determination of the whey protein nitrogen index of skim milk powder. N.Z. J. Dairy Sci. Technoi., 5, 48–52.Google Scholar
  123. Sanderson, W.B. (1978) Instant milk powders: manufacture and keeping quality. N.Z. J. Dairy Sci. Technol., 13, 137–43.Google Scholar
  124. Schebor, C., Beura, M.P., Karel, M. and Chirife, J. (1999) Color formation due to non-enzymatic browning in amorphous, glassy, anhydrous, model systems. Food Chem., 65, 427–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Sharma, K.S. and Tandon, K.C. (1986) Effect of storage on the nitrogen distribution of skim milk powders. Indian J. Dairy Sci., 39, 330–2.Google Scholar
  126. Shiratsuchi, H., Shimoda, M., Imayoshi, K., Noda, K. and Osajima, Y. (1994a) Volatile flavour compounds in spray-dried skim milk powder. J. Agric. Food Chem., 42, 984–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Shiratsuchi, H., Shimoda, M., Imayoshi, K., Noda, K. and Osajima, Y. (1994b) Off-flavour compounds in spray-dried skim milk powder. J. Agric. Food Chem., 42, 1323–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Shiratsuchi, H., Yoshimura, Y., Shimoda, M., Noda, K. and Osajima, Y. (1995) Contributors to sweet and milky odour attributes of spray dried skim milk powder. J. Agric. Food Chem., 43, 2453–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Singh, H. and Creamer, L.K. (1991) Denaturation, aggregation and heat stability of milk protein during the manufacture of skim milk powder. J. Dairy Res., 58, 269–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Singh, H. and Newstead, D.F. (1992) Aspects of milk proteins in milk powder manufacture, in Advanced Dairy Chemistry 1-Proteins, 2nd edn, (P.F. Fox ed.) Elsevier Applied Science, London, pp. 735–66.Google Scholar
  131. Singh, H. and Tokley, R.P. (1990) Effects of preheat treatments and buttermilk addition on the seasonal variations in the heat stability of recombined evaporated milk and reconstituted concentrated milk. Aust. J. Dairy Technol., 45, 10–6.Google Scholar
  132. Singh, H., Sharma, R. and Tokley, R.P. (1992) Influence of incorporation of soya lecithin into skim milk powder on the heat stability of recombined evaporated milk. Aust. J. Dairy Technol., 47, 33–7.Google Scholar
  133. Staplefeldt, H., Berrum, K. and Skibstead, L.H. (1997a) Ellman’s reagent for determination of the heat treatment of milk powder. Improved analytical procedure based on a stopped-flow kinetic study. Milchwissenschaft, 52, 146–9.Google Scholar
  134. Staplefeldt, H., Mortensen, G. and Skibstead, L.H. (1997b) Early events in oxidation of whole milk powder detected by electron spin resonance spectrometry. Carryover effects from butter oil used for instantisation. Milscwissenschaft, 52, 266–9.Google Scholar
  135. Staplefeldt, H., Nielsen, B.R., and Skibstead, L.H. (1997c) Effect of heat treatment, water activity and storage temperature on the oxidative stability of whole milk powder. Int. Dairy J., 7, 331–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Straatsma, J., van Houwelingen, G., Steenbergen, A.E. and de Jong, P. (1999) Spray drying of food products: 2. Prediction of insolubility index. J. Food Eng., 42, 73–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Swaisgood, S. (1992) The chemistry of caseins, in Advanced Dairy Chemistry 1-Proteins, 2nd edn, (P.F. Fox ed.) Elsevier Applied Science, London, pp. 63–110.Google Scholar
  138. Sweetsur, A.W.M. and Muir, D.D. (1980) Effect of concentration by ultrafiltration on the heat stability of skim-milk. J. Dairy Res., 47, 327–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Sweetsur, A.W.M. and Muir, D.D. (1981) Role of cyanate ions in the urea-induced stabilisation of the caseinate complex in skim-milk. J. Dairy Res., 48, 163–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Tan-Kintia, R. (1996) Heat-Induced Changes and the Heat Stability of Milk, PhD Thesis, National University of Ireland, Cork.Google Scholar
  141. Tan-Kintia, R. and Fox, P.F. (1999) Effect of various preheat treatments on the heat stability of unconcentrated milk. Int. Dairy J., 9, 219–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Teehan, C.C., Kelly, P.M., Devery, R. and O’Toole, A. (1997) Evaluation of test conditions during the measurement of coffee stability of instant whole milk powder. Int. J. Dairy Technol., 50, 113–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Teunnou, E., Fitzpatrick, J.J. and Synnott, E.C. (1999) Characterisation of food powder flowability. J. Food Eng., 39, 31–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Ulberth, F. and Roubicek, D. (1995) Monitoring of oxidative deterioration of milk powder by headspace gas chromatography. Int. Dairy J., 5, 523–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. van Mil, P.J.J.M. and Jans, J.A. (1991) Storage stability of whole milk powder: effects of process and storage conditions on product properties. Neth. Milk Dairy J., 45, 145–67.Google Scholar
  146. van Renterghem, R. and de Block, J. (1996) Furosine in consumption milk and milk powders. Int. Dairy J., 6, 371–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Varnam, A.H. and Sutherland, J.P. (1994) Milk and Milk Products: Technology, Chemistry and Microbiology, Chapman and Hall, London.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Walstra, P. and Jenness, R. (1984) Dairy Chemistry and Physics, Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  149. Walstra, P., Guerts, T.J., Noomen, A., Jellema, A. and van Boekel, M.A.J.S. (1999) Dairy Technology: Principles of Milk Properties and Processes, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  150. Warburton, S. and Pixton, S.W. (1978) The moisture relations of spray dried skimmed. J. Stored Prod. Res., 44, 143–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Warren, R.J. (1980) Packing and marketing of milk and whey powders, in Milk and Whey Powders, Society of Dairy Technology, Middlesex, UK, pp. 117–24.Google Scholar
  152. Westergaard, V. (1994) Milk Powder Technology: Evaporation and Spray Drying, Niro A/S, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  153. Woodhams, D.J. and Murray, M.J. (1978) Properties of spray dried milk powders. N.Z. J. Dairy Sci. Technol., 13, 172–8.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. L. Kelly
  • J. E. O’Connell
  • P. F. Fox

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations