Self-With-Other Representations

  • Daniel M. Ogilvie
  • Christopher J. Fleming
  • Greta E. Pennell
Part of the The Plenum Series in Social/Clinical Psychology book series (SSSC)


There are two major divisions in psychology. One is occupied by descendants of 19th-century Leipzig and the other by descendants of 19th-century Vienna. Erdelyi, (1985) observed that this division has resulted in not one, but two, psychologies. He labeled one Apollonian and the other Dionysian. Apollonians (intellectual off-spring of Wundt in Leipzig) thrive in the laboratory where variables are fashioned to meet scientific standards. As this division is played out in personality psychology, the principal goal of Apollonians is to establish objective measures of behavior. Only things that can be observed, counted, or otherwise quantified fall within this province. Modern-day trait psychology falls mostly within this tradition. In contrast, Dionysians (intellectual descendants of Freud in Vienna) are “untrammeled by method” (Erdelyi, 1994, p. 670). Personality psychologists who resist being constricted by numbers and standard statistics argue that if one must postulate the operation of unconscious, unobservable, and nonrational mental processes in order to make headway in understanding the subjective worlds of individuals, so be it. Such inferences regarding psychodynamic forces operating behind the curtains of consciousness provide fuel for Apollonian outrage. They are premises for disparaging charges pertaining to illusive, chameleonlike sorts of data garnered as evidence for psychoanalytic models of the person. In their turn, Dionysians complain about the sparse, even trivial, content of findings that emanate from the positivistic labs of their counterparts.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel M. Ogilvie
    • 1
  • Christopher J. Fleming
    • 1
  • Greta E. Pennell
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyRutgers, The State University of New JerseyNew BrunswickUSA

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