Advertisement

Learned Helplessness and Explanatory Style

  • Christopher Peterson
  • Curie Park
Part of the The Plenum Series in Social/Clinical Psychology book series (SSSC)

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to describe theory and research in learned helplessness and explanatory style, particularly as this work pertains to personality psychology. The chapter begins by providing basic background about these topics and ends by discussing some current areas of investigation.

Keywords

Causal Explanation Causal Attribution Attributional Style Learn Helplessness Explanatory Style 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abramson, L. Y., Alloy, L. B., & Metalsky, G. I. (1995). Hopelessness depression. In G. M. Buchanan & M. E. P. Seligman (Eds.), Explanatory style. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  2. Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I., & Alloy, L. B. (1989). Hopelessness depression: A theory-based subtype of depression. Psychological Review, 96, 358–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abramson, L. Y., Seligman, M. E. P., & Teasdale, J. D. (1978). Learned helplessness in humans: Critique and reformulation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 49–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Adler, A. (1927). The theory and practice of individual psychology. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.Google Scholar
  5. Adler, A. (1964). Inferiority feelings and defiance and obedience. In H. L. Ansbacher & R. R. Ansbacher (Eds.), The individual psychology of Alfred Adler. New York: Harper. (Original work published 1910)Google Scholar
  6. Andrews, G. R., & Debus, L. R. (1978). Persistence and the causal perception of failure: Modifying cognitive attributions. Journal of Educational Psychology, 70, 154–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Atkinson, J. W. (1957). Motivational determinants of risk-taking behavior. Psychological Review, 64, 359–372.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aydin, G. (1988). The remediation of children's helpless explanatory style and related unpopularity. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 12, 155–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bandura, A. (1969). Principles of behavior modification. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Google Scholar
  10. Bandura, A. (1973). Aggression: A social learning analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  11. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  13. Bandura, A., & Waiters, R. (1963). Social learning and personality development. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Google Scholar
  14. Baumeister, R. F. (1986). Identity: Cultural change and the struggle for self New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Betancourt, H., & Weiner, B. (1982). Attributions for achievement-related events, expectancy, and sentiment: A study of success and failure in Chile and the United States. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 13. 362–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bettelheim, B. (1976). The uses of enchantment: The meaning and importance of fairy tales. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  17. Brown, J. A. C. (1964). Freud and the post-Freudians. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  18. Brown, J. D., & Siegel, J. M. (1988). Attributions for negative life events and depression: The role of perceived control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 316–322.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Buchanan, G. M., & Seligman, M. E. P. (Eds.). (1995). Explanatory style. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  20. Bunce, S. C., Larsen, R. J., & Peterson, C. (1995). Life after trauma: Personality and daily life experiences of traumatized people. Journal of Personality, 63, 165–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Burn, S. M. (1992). Loss of control, attributions, and helplessness in the homeless. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 22, 1161–1174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Carver, C. S. (1989)/ How should multi-faceted personality constructs be tested? Issues illustrated by self-moni toring, attributional style, and tardiness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 577–585.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cerezo-Jimenez, M. A.. & Frias, D. (1994). Emotional and cognitive adjustment in abused children. Child Abuse and Neglect, 18, 923–932.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chandler, T. A., Shama, D. D., Wolf, F. M., & Planchard, S. K. (1981). Multiattributional causality:A five-national samples study. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 12, 207–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cole, D. A., & Turner, J. E. (1993). Models of cognitive mediation and moderation in childhood depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 271–281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Colligan, R. C., Offord, K. P., Malinchoc, M., Schulman, P., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1994). CAVEing the MMPI for an optimism-pessimism scale: Seligman's attributional model and the assessment of explanatory style. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 50. 71–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Crittenden, K. S. (1991). Asian self-effacement or feminine modesty? Attributional patterns of women university students in Taiwan. Gender and Society, 5, 98–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cronbach, L. J. (1957). The two disciplines of scientific psychology. American Psychologist. 12. 671–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. DeRubeis, R. J., Evans, M. D., Hollon, S. D., Garvey, M. J., Grove, W. M., & Tauson, V. B. (1990). How does cognitive therapy work? Cognitive change and symptom change in cognitive therapy and pharmacotherapy for depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58. 862–869.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. DeRubeis, R. J., & Hollon, S. D. (1995). Explanatory style in the treatment of depression. In G. M. Buchanan & M. E. P. Seligman (Eds.), Explanatory style. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  31. Duda. J, L., & Allison, M. T. (1989). The attributional theory of achievement motivation: Cross-cultural considerations. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 13, 37–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dweck, C. S. (1975). The role of expectations and attributions in the alleviation of learned helplessness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 674–685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fowler, W. J., & Peterson, L. P. (1981). Increasing reading persistence and altering attributional style of learned helpless children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 73, 251–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fry, P. S., & Ghosh, R. (1980). Attribution of success and failure. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 11, 343-363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gold, E. (1986). Long-term effects of sexual victimization in childhood: An attributional approach. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 471–475.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Guimond, S., & Palmer, D. L. (1990). Type of academic training and causal attributions for social problems. European Journal of Social Psychology, 20. 61–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Harvey, J. H., Ickes, W., & Kidd, R. F. (Eds.). (1976–1981). New directions in attribution research (Vols. 1–3). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  38. Hathaway, S. R., & McKinley, J. C. (1943). Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  39. Heider, F. (1958). The psychology of interpersonal relations. New York: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Henry, J. W, Martinko, M. J., & Pierce, M. A. (1993). Attributional style as a predictor of success in a first computer course. Computers in Human Behavior, 9, 341–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hess, R. D., Chang, C. M., & McDevitt, T. M. (1987). Cultural variation in family beliefs about children's performance in mathematics: Comparisons among People's Republic of China, Chinese-American. and Caucasian American families. Journal of Educational Psychology, 79, 179–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Heyman, G. D., Dweck, C. S., & Cain, K. M. (1992). Young children's vulnerability to self-blame and helplessness: Relationship to beliefs about goodness. Child Development, 63. 401–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hiroto, D. S., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1975). Generality of learned helplessness in man. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 311–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hollon, S. D., DeRubeis, R. J., Evans, M. D., Wiemer, M. J., Garvey, M. J., Grove, W. M., & Tuason, V. B. (1992). Cognitive therapy and pharmacotherapy for depression: Singly and in combination. Archives of General Psychiatry. 49. 774–781.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Holloway, S. D., Kashiwagi, K., Hess, R. D., & Azuma, H. (1986). Causal attributions by Japanese and American mothers and children about performance in mathematics. International Journal of Psychology, 21, 269–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jaycox, L. H., Reivich, K., Gillham, J.,& Seligman, M. E. P. (1994). Prevention of depressive symptoms in school children. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 32, 801–816.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jones, E. E., & Davis, K. E. (1965). From acts to dispositions: The attribution process in person perception. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 2). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  48. Kamen-Siegel, L., Rodin, J., Seligman, M. E. P., & Dwyer, J. (1991). Explanatory style and cell-mediated immunity in elderly men and women. Health Psychology, 10, 229–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kashima,Y., & Triandis, H. C. (1986). The self-serving bias in attributions as a coping strategy: A cross-cultural comparison. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 17, 83–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kaslow, N. J., Rehm, L. P., Pollak, S. L., & Siegel, A. W. (1988). Attributional style and self-control behavior in depressed and nondepressed children and their parents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 16, 163–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kaufman, J. (1991). Depressive disorders in maltreated children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 257–265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kelley, H. H. (1973). The process of causal attribution. American Psychologist, 28, 107–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kennelly, K. J., & Mount, S. A. (1985). Perceived contingency of reinforcement, helplessness, locus of control, and academic performance. Psychology in the Schools, 22, 465–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ladd, J. (1957). The structure of a moral code. Boston: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Lee, F., Hallahan, M., & Herzog, T. (1996). Explaining real-life events: How culture and domain shape attributions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 732–741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lewin, K. (1935). A dynamic theory of personality. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  57. Lewin, K. (1951). Field theory in social science: Selected theoretical papers. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  58. Lin, E. H., & Peterson, C. (1990). Pessimistic explanatory style and response to illness. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 28, 243–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Little, A. (1987). Attributions in a cross-cultural context. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 113, 61–79.Google Scholar
  60. Lloyd, C. (1980). Life events and depressive disorder reviewed: I. Events as predisposing factors. II. Events as precipitating factors. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 529–548.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Maier, S. F., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1976). Learned helplessness: Theory and evidence. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 105, 3–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. McClelland, D. C. (1961). The achieving society. Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand.Google Scholar
  63. Mikulincer, M. (1994). Human learned helplessness: A coping perspective. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  64. Miller, I. W., & Norman, W. H. (1979). Learned helplessness in humans: A review and attribution theory model. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 93–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Miller, J. G. (1984). Culture and the development of everyday social explanation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 961–978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mischel, W. (1990). Personality dispositions revisited and revised: A view after three decades. In L. A. Pervin (Ed.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  67. Morgan, C. D., & Murray, H. A. (1935). A method for investigating fantasies. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 34, 289–306.Google Scholar
  68. Needles, D. J., & Abramson, L. Y. (1990). Positive life events, attributional style, and hopefulness: Testing a model of recovery from depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 99, 156–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Nisbett, R., & Ross, L. (1980). Human inference: Strategies and shortcomings of social judgment. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  70. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Girgus, J. S., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1986). Learned helplessness in children: A longitudinal study of depression, achievement, and explanatory style. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 435–442.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Girgus, J. S., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1992). Predictors and consequences of childhood depressive symptoms: A 5-year longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101, 405–422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Nurmi, J. (1992). Cross-cultural differences in self-serving bias: Responses to the Attributional Style Questionnaire by American and Finnish students. The Journal of Social Psychology, 132, 69–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Oettingen, G., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1990). Pessimism and behavioral signs of depression in East versus West Berlin. European Journal of Social Psychology, 20, 207–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Orsillo, S. M., McCaffrey, R. J., & Fisher, J. M. (1993). Siblings of head-injured individuals: A population at risk. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 8, 102–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Overmier, J. B., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1967). Effects of inescapable shock upon subsequent escape and avoidance learning. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 63, 23–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Parsons, J. E., Meece, J. L., Adler, T. F., & Kaczala, C. M. (1982). Sex differences in attributional patterns and learned helplessness? Sex Roles, 8, 421–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Pepper, S. C. (1942). World hypotheses. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  78. Perez-Bouchard, L., Johnson, J. L., & Ahrens, A. H. (1993). Attributional style in children of substance abusers. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 19, 475–489.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Peterson, C. (1982). Learned helplessness and attributional interventions in depression. In C. Antaki & C. Brewin (Eds.), Attributions and psychological change: A guide to the use of attribution theory in the clinic and classroom. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  80. Peterson, C. (1988). Explanatory style as a risk factor for illness. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 12, 117–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Peterson, C. (1991). The meaning and measurement of explanatory style. Psychological Inquiry, 2, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Peterson, C. (1992). Personality (2nd ed.). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  83. Peterson, C., & Barrett, L. C. (1987). Explanatory style and academic performance among university freshmen. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 603–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Peterson, C., Bettes, B. A., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1985). Depressive symptoms and unprompted causal attributions: Content analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 23, 379–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Peterson, C., & Bossio, L. M. (1991). Health and optimism. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  86. Peterson, C., Colvin, D., & Lin, E. H. (1992). Explanatory style and helplessness. Social Behavior and Personality, 20, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Peterson, C., Luborsky, L., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1983). Attributions and depressive mood shifts: A case study using the symptom-context method. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 92, 96–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Peterson, C., Maier, S. F., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1993). Learned helplessness: A theory for the age of personal control. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  89. Peterson, C., & Park, C. (1995). Implicit and explicit explanatory styles in the lifecourse of college-educated women. Unpublished manuscript, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  90. Peterson, C., Schulman, P., Castellon, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1992). The explanatory style scoring manual. In C. P. Smith (Ed.), Handbook of thematic analysis. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  91. Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1984). Causal explanations as a risk factor for depression: Theory and evidence. Psychological Review, 91, 347–374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Peterson, C., Seligman, M. E. P., & Vaillant, G. E. (1988). Pessimistic explanatory style is a risk factor for physical illness: A thirty-five year longitudinal study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 23–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Peterson, C., Semmel, A., von Baeyer, C., Abramson, L. Y, Metalsky, G. I., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1982). The Attributional Style Questionnaire. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 6, 287–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Peterson, C., & Stunkard, A. J. (1989). Personal control and health promotion. Social Science and Medicine, 28, 819–828.Google Scholar
  95. Peterson, C., & Stunkard, A. J. (1992). Cognates of personal control: Locus of control, self-efficacy, and explanatory style. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 1, 111–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Peterson, C., & Ulrey, L. M. (1994). Can explanatory style be scored from TAT protocols? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20, 101–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Quine, W. V., & Ullian, J. S. (1978). The web of belief (2nd ed.). New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  98. Radke-Yarrow, M., Belmont, B., Nottelman, E., & Bottomly, L. (1990). Young children's self-conceptions: Origins in the natural discourse of depressed and normal mothers and their children. In D. Cicchetti & M. Beeghly (Eds.), The self in transition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  99. Reivich, K. (1995). The measurement of explanatory style. In G. M. Buchanan & M. E. P. Scligman (Eds.), Explanatory style. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  100. Reivich, K., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1991). The Forced -Choice Attributional Style Questionnaire. Unpublished manuscript, University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  101. Rose, D. T., & Abramson, L. Y. (1992). Developmental predictors of depressive cognitive style: Research and theory. In D. Cicchetti & S. L. Toth (Eds.), Rochester Symposium on Developmental Psychopathology: Developmental perspectives on depression. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.Google Scholar
  102. Roth, S. (1980). A revised model of learned helplessness in humans. Journal of Personality, 48, 103–133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Rotter, J. B. (1954). Social learning and clinical psychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 81 (1, Whole No. 609).Google Scholar
  105. Salili, F., Maehr, M. L., & Gillmore, G. (1976). Achievement and morality: A cross-cultural analysis of causal attribution and evaluation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33, 327–337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Satterfield, J. M., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1994). Military aggression and risk predicted by explanatory style. Psychological Science, 5, 77–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Schulman, P., Keith, D., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1993). Is optimism heritable? A study of twins. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 31, 569–574.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Schulman, P., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1986). Explanatory style predicts productivity among life insurance agents. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 832–838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Seligman, M. E. P (1974). Depression and learned helplessness. In R. J. Friedman & M. M. Katz (Eds.), The psychology of depression: Contemporary theory and research. Washington, DC: Winston.Google Scholar
  110. Seligman, M. E. P. (1975). Helplessness: On depression, development, and death. San Francisco: Freeman.Google Scholar
  111. Seligman, M. E. P. (1991). Learned optimism. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  112. Seligman, M. E. P., Abramson, L.Y, Semmel, A., & von Baeyer, C. (1979). Depressive attributional style. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88, 242–247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Seligman, M. E. P., & Maier, S. F. (1967). Failure to escape traumatic shock. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 74, 1–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Seligman, M. E. P., Peterson, C., Kaslow, N. J., Tanenbaum, R. L., Alloy, L. B., & Abramson, L.Y. (1984). Attributional style and depressive symptoms among children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 93, 235–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Sellers, R. M., & Peterson, C. (1993). Explanatory style and coping with controllable events by student-athletes. Cognition and Emotion, 7, 431–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Sethi, S., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1993). Optimism and fundamentalism. Psychological Science, 4, 256–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Stevenson, H. W. J., & Stigler, J. W. (1992). The learning gap: Why our schools are failing and what we can learn from Japanese and Chinese education. New York: Summit.Google Scholar
  118. Stipeck, D., Weiner, B., & Li, K. (1989). Testing some attribution-emotion relations in the People's Republic of China. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 109–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Sweeney, P. D., Anderson, K., & Bailey, S. (1986). Attributional style in depression: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 974–991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Tolman, E. C. (1948). Cognitive maps in rats and men. Psychological Review, 55, 189–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Turk, E., & Bry, B. H. (1992). Adolescents' and parents' explanatory styles and parents' causal explanations about their adolescents. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 16, 349–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Turner, J. E., & Cole, D. A. (1994). Developmental differences in cognitive diatheses for child depression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 22, 15–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Vaihinger, H. (1911). The psychology of “as if”: A system of the theoretical. practical, and religious fictions of mankind. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.Google Scholar
  124. van den Berg, J. H. (1983). The changing nature of man. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  125. Visintainer, M., Volpicelli, J. R., & Selig man, M. E. P. (1982). Tumor rejection in rats after inescapable or escapable shock. Science, 216, 437–439.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Weiner, B. (1986). An attributional theory of motivation and emotion. New York: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Weiner, B. (1990). Searching for the roots of applied attribution theory. In S. Graham & V. S. Folkes (Eds.), Attribution theory: Applications to achievement, mental health, and interpersonal conflict. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  128. Weisz, J. R., Rothbaum, F.M., & Blackburn, T. C. (1984). Standing out and standing in: The psychology of control in America and Japan. American Psychologist, 39, 955–969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. White, R. W. (1959). Motivation reconsidered: The concept of competence. Psychological Review, 66, 297–333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Wortman, C. B., & Brehm, J.W. (1975). Response to uncontrollable outcomes: An integration of reactance theory and the learned helplessness model. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 8). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  131. Yamauchi, H. (1989). Congruence of causal attributions for school performance given by children and mothers. PsychologicaI Report, 64, 359–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Zullow, H. M. (1991). Pessimistic rumination in popular songs and newsmagazines predict economic recession via decreased consumer optimism and spending. Journal of Economic Psychology, 12, 501–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Zullow, H. M., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1990). Pessimistic rumination predicts defeat of presidential candidates, 1900 to 1984. Psychological Inquiry, 1, 52–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher Peterson
    • 1
  • Curie Park
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations