Advertisement

Plantation Households

  • Sarah K. CroucherEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter tackles the materiality of households, largely focused on the plantation of Mgoli, Pemba, and drawing extensively on excavation data. It is argued that plantation owners’ homes were sometimes used to materialize an Omani identity. This chapter also explores the nature of power on plantations. Drawing on features such as the clove-drying floor and baraza at Mgoli, the paternalistic structure of power on Zanzibari plantations is explored, as is the way that a small number of elite women were able to take charge within this structure. By contrast, the position of women held as concubines is also discussed through an analysis of how such women may have figured into the architectural structures of plantation households.

Keywords

Household Plantation owners Omani Concubines Power 

References

  1. Abu-Lughod, J. (1987). The Islamic city-historic myth, Islamic essence, and contemporary relevance. International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 19(2), 155–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aldrick, J. (1990). The nineteenth-century carved wooden doors of the East African coast. Azania, 25(1), 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alexander, R. T. (1999). Mesoamerican house lots and archaeological site structure: Problems of inference in Yaxcaba, Yucatan, Mexico, 1750–1847. In P. M. Allison (Ed.), The archaeology of household activities (pp. 78–100). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  4. Askew, K. M. (1999). Female circles and male lines: Gender dynamics along the Swahili Coast. Africa Today, 46(3/4), 67–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barth, F. (1983). Sohar, culture and society in an Omani town. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Beaudry, M. C. (2004). Doing the housework: New approaches to the archaeology of households. In K. S. Barile & J. C. Brandon (Eds.), Household chores and household choices: Theorizing the domestic sphere in archaeology (pp. 254–262). Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press.Google Scholar
  7. Bourdieu, P. (1977). Outline of a theory of practice. (Cambridge studies in social and cultural anthropology). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bourdieu, P. (2000). The Berber house or the world revisted. In J. Thomas (Ed.), Interpretive archaeology: A reader (pp. 493–509). London: Leicester University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Brode, H. (2000). Tippu tip: The story of his career in zanzibar and central Africa, narrated from his own accounts. (English ed. Brode, H., trans: H. Havelock). Zanzibar: Gallery Publications.Google Scholar
  10. Cameron, C. M. (2011). Captives and culture change. Current Anthropology, 52(2), 169–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Caplan, A. P. (1976). Boys’ circumcision and girls’ puberty rites among the Swahili of Mafia Island, Tanzania. Africa: Journal of the International African Institute, 46(1), 21–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Clark, C., & Horton, M. (1984/5). Zanzibar archaeological survey 1984/5. Zanzibar: Ministry of Information, Culture, and Sport.Google Scholar
  13. Cooper, F. (1977). Plantation slavery on the east coast of Africa. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Cooper, F. (1981). Islam and cultural hegemony: The ideology of slaveowners on the East African coast. In P. E. Lovejoy (Ed.), The ideology of slavery in Africa (pp. 271–307). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  15. Craster, J. E. E. (1913). Pemba, the spice Island of Zanzibar. London: T. Fisher Unwin.Google Scholar
  16. Croucher, S. K. (2006). Plantations on Zanzibar: An archaeological approach to complex identities, school of arts, histories and cultures. PhD thesis, Manchester: The University of Manchester.Google Scholar
  17. Croucher, S. K. (2007). Clove plantations on nineteenth-century Zanzibar: Possibilities for gender archaeology in Africa. Journal of Social Archaeology, 7(3), 302–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Deagan, K. (1988). Neither history nor prehistory: The questions that count in historical archaeology. Historical Archaeology, 22(1), 7–12.Google Scholar
  19. Deagan, K. (1996). Colonial transformation: Euro-American cultural genesis in the early Spanish American colonies. Journal of Anthropological Research (Formerly Southwestern Journal of Anthropology), 52(2), 135–160.Google Scholar
  20. Deetz, J. (1996). In small things forgotten: An archaeology of early American life (2nd ed.). New York: Anchor Books.Google Scholar
  21. Donley, L. W. (1982). House power: Swahili space and symbolic markers. In I. Hodder (Ed.), Symbolic and structural archaeology (pp. 63–73). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Donley, L. W. (1987). Life in the Swahili Town House Reveals the Symbolic Meaning of Spaces and Artefact Assemblages. The African Archaeological Review 5:181–192Google Scholar
  23. Donley-Reid, L. (1990). A structuring structure: The Swahili house. In S. Kent (Ed.), Domestic architecture and the use of space (pp. 114–126). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Fair, L. (1996). Identity, difference, and dance: Female initiation in Zanzibar, 1890 to 1930. Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies, 17(3), 146–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fair, L. (1998). Dressing up: Clothing, class and gender in post-abolition Zanzibar. The Journal of African History, 39(1), 63–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fair, L. (2001). Pastimes and politics: Culture, community, and identity in post-abolition Urban Zanzibar, 1890–1945. (Eastern African Studies). Athens: Ohio University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Fair, L. (2004). Remaking fashion in the Paris of the Indian Ocean: Dress, performance, and the cultural construction of a cosmopolitan Zanzibari Identity. In J. Allman (Ed.), Fashioning Africa: Power and the politics of dress (pp. 13–30). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Fewster, K. J. (2006). The potential of analogy in post-processual archaeologies: A case study from Basimane ward, Serowe, Botswana. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute (New Series), 12(1), 61–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fleisher, J. (2003). Viewing stonetowns from the countryside: An archaeological approach to Swahili regions, AD 800–1500. PhD thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Virginia.Google Scholar
  30. Fleisher, J. (2010a). Rituals of consumption and the politics of feasting on the eastern African coast, AD 700–1500. Journal of World Prehistory, 23(4), 195–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fleisher, J. B. (2004). Behind the Sultan of Kilwa’s ‘’Rebellious Conduct”: Local Perspectives on an International East African Town. In African Historical Archaeologies, edited by A. M. Reid and P. J. Lane, pp. 91–124. Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers, New York.Google Scholar
  32. Fleisher, J. B. (2010b). Swahili synoecism: Rural settlements and town formation on the Central East African coast, A.D. 750–1500. Journal of Field Archaeology, 35(3), 265–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fleisher, J., & LaViolette, A. (1999). Elusive wattle-and-daub: Finding the hidden majority in the archaeology of the Swahili. Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa, 34(1), 87–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fleisher, J., & LaViolette, A. (2007). The changing power of Swahili houses, fourteenth to nineteenth-centuries A.D. In R. A. J. Beck (Ed.), The durable house: House society models in archaeology. Center for Archaeological Investigations, Occasional Paper No. 35. Carbondale: Center for Archaeological Investigations, Southern Illinois University Carbondale.Google Scholar
  35. Fleisher, J., & Wynne-Jones, S. (2012). Finding meaning in ancient Swahili spatial practices. African Archaeological Review, 29(2–3), 171–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fleisher, J., & Wynne-Jones, S. (2013). Archaeological investigations at Songo Mnara, Tanzania. 2011 Field season. Preliminary report submitted to the Department of Antiquities, Republic of Tanzania.Google Scholar
  37. Ghaidan, U. (1975). Lamu: A study of the Swahili town. Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau.Google Scholar
  38. Glassman, J. (1991). The Bondsman’s new clothes: The contradictory consciousness of slave resistance on the Swahili coast. Journal of African History, 32, 277–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Glassman, J. (1995). Feasts and riot: Revelry, rebellion and popular consciousness on the Swahili coast, 1856–1888. Portsmouth: Heinemann/James Currey.Google Scholar
  40. Hansen, K. T. (1992). Introduction: Domesticity in Africa. In K. T. Hansen (Ed.), African encounters with domesticity (pp. 1–33). New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Heath, K. W. (2003). Defining the nature of vernacular. Material Culture, 35(2), 48–54.Google Scholar
  42. Hendon, J. A. (2004). Living and working at home: The social archaeology of household production and social relations. In L. Meskell & R. Preucel (Eds.), A companion to social archaeology (pp. 272–287). Malden: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  43. Horton, M. (1996). Shanga: The archaeology of a Muslim trading community on the coast of East Africa. London: British Institute in Eastern Africa.Google Scholar
  44. Huffman, T. N. (1984). Expressive space in the Zimbabwe culture. Man (New Series), 19(4), 593–612.Google Scholar
  45. Jamieson, R. W. (2000). Dona Luisa and her two houses. In S. A. Mrozowski, J. A. Delle, & R. Paynter (Eds.), Lines that divide: Historical archaeologies of race, class, and gender (pp. 142–167). Knoxville: The University of Tennessee Press.Google Scholar
  46. King, J. A. (2006). Household archaeology, identities and biographies. In D. Hicks & M. C. Beaudry (Eds.), The Cambridge companion to historical archaeology (pp. 293–313). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Lane, P. J. (2005). Barbarous tribes and unrewarding gyrations? The changing role of the ethnographic imagination in African archaeology. In A. B. Stahl (Ed.), African archaeology: A critical introduction. Malden: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  48. LaViolette, A. (2008). Swahili cosmopolitanism in Africa and the Indian Ocean world, A.D. 600–1500. Archaeologies, 4(1), 24–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. LaViolette, A., & Fleisher, J. (2005) The archaeology of sub-saharan urbanism: Cities and their countrysides. In A. B. Stahl (Ed.), African archaeology (pp. 327–352). Malden: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  50. Lyons, D. (1998). Witchcraft, gender, power and intimate relations in Mura compounds in Déla, Northern Cameroon. World Archaeology, 29(3), 344–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Mack, B. B. (1992). Harem domesticity in Kano, Nigeria. In K. T. Hansen (Ed.), African encounters with domesticity (pp. 75–97). New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Malan, A. (1990). The archaeology of probate inventories. Social Dynamics, 16(1), 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Marshall, L. W. (2009). Fugitive slave communities in 19th century Kenya: A preliminary report on recent archaeological and historical research. Nyame Akuma, 72, 21–29.Google Scholar
  54. Marshall, L. W. (2011). Fugitive slaves and community creation in 19th century Kenya: An archaeological and historical investigation of Watoro villages. PhD thesis, University of Virginia.Google Scholar
  55. McCurdy, S. (2006). Fashioning sexuality: Desire, Manyema ethnicity, and the creation of the Kanga, ca. 1880–1900. International Journal of African Historical Studies, 39(3), 441–469.Google Scholar
  56. McDow, T. F. (2008). Arabs and Africans: Commerce and kinship from Oman to the East African Interior, c. 1820–1900. PhD thesis New Haven: History Department, Yale University New Haven.Google Scholar
  57. Middleton, J. (1992). The world of the Swahili: An African mercantile civilization. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Middleton, J., & Campbell, J. (1965). Zanzibar: Its society and its politics. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Milne, G. (1936) A provisional soil map of East Africa (Kenya, Uganda, Tanganyika, and Zanzibar) with explanatory Memoir. East African Agricultural Research Station, Amani, Tanganyika Territory.Google Scholar
  60. Miller, G. L. and C. Sullivan (1984). Machine-Made Glass Containers and the End of Production for Mouth-Blown Bottles. Historical Archaeology 18(2), 83–96.Google Scholar
  61. Mirza, S., & Strobel, M. (1989). Three Swahili women: Life histories from Mombasa, Kenya. (trans: S. Mirza, & M. Strobel). Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  62. Moore, H. L. (1986). Space, text and gender: An anthropological study of the marakwet of Kenya. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Myers, G. A. (1994). Eurocentrism and African urbanization: The case of Zanzibar’s other side. Antipode, 26(3), 195–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Myers, G. A. (1995). The early history of the ‘Other Side’ of Zanzibar stone town. In A. Sheriff (Ed.), The history and conservation of Zanzibar Stone town (pp. 30–45). Athens: Ohio University Press (in Association with the Department of Archives, Museums and Antiquities, Zanzibar).Google Scholar
  65. Myers, G. A. (1996). Naming and placing the other: Power and the urban landscape in Zanzibar. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, 87(3), 237–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Myers, G. A. (1997). Sticks and stones: Colonialism and Zanzibari housing. Africa: Journal of the International African Institute, 67(2), 252–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Myers, G. A. (2003). Verandahs of power: Colonialism and space in urban Africa. Space, place and society. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.Google Scholar
  68. Pollard, E., Fleisher, J., & Wynne-Jones, S. (2012). Beyond the stone town: Maritime architecture at fourteenth–fifteenth century Songo Mnara, Tanzania. Journal of Maritime Archaeology, 7(1), 43–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Reute, E. (born Salme, Princess of Oman and Zanzibar). (1998/[1886]) Memoirs of an Arabian Princess from Zanzibar. Zanzibar: Gallery Publications.Google Scholar
  70. Robertson, C. C., & Klein, M. A. (1983). Women’s importance in African slave systems. In C. C. Robertson (Ed.), Women and slavery in Africa (pp. 3–25). Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
  71. Robson, E. (2006). The ‘Kitchen’ as women’s space in rural Hausaland, Northern Nigeria. Gender, Place and Culture, 13(6), 669–676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rockel, S. J. (1995). Wage labor and the culture of porterage in nineteenth-century Tanzania: The central caravan routes. South Asia Bulletin: Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa, and the Middle East, 15(2), 14–24.Google Scholar
  73. Romero Curtin, P. (1983). Laboratory for the oral history of slavery: The Island of Lamu on the Kenya coast. The American Historical Review, 88(4), 858–882.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Romero, P. W. (1986). ‘Where have all the slaves gone?’ Emancipation and post-emancipation in Lamu, Kenya. Journal of African History, 27(3), 497–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sheriff, A. (1987) Slaves, spices and ivory in Zanzibar. Athens: Ohio University Press.Google Scholar
  76. Sheriff, A. (1995). An outline history of Zanzibar stone town. In A. Sheriff (Ed.), The history and conservation of Zanzibar stone town (pp. 8–29). Athens: Ohio University Press (in Association with the Department of Archives, Museums and Antiquities, Zanzibar).Google Scholar
  77. Sheriff, A. (2001). The spatial dichotomy of Swahili towns: The case of Zanzibar in the nineteenth-century. Azania, 36–37, 63–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Strobel, M. (1979). Muslim women in Mombasa, 1800–1975. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  79. Tringham, R. (1991). Households with faces: The challenge of gender in prehistoric architectural remains. In J. M. Gero & M. W. Conkey (Eds.), Engendering archaeology: Women and prehistory (pp. 93–131). Cambridge: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  80. Tuan, Y. (1977). Space and place: The perspective of experience. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  81. Upton, D. (1981). Ordinary buildings: A bibliographical essay on American vernacular architecture. American Studies International, 19(2), 57–75.Google Scholar
  82. Wright, M. (1993). Strategies of slaves and women: Life stories from East/Central Africa. London: James Currey.Google Scholar
  83. Wynne-Jones, S. (2005a). Urbanisation at Kilwa, Tanzania, AD 800–1400, archaeology. PhD thesis Cambridge: University of Cambridge.Google Scholar
  84. Wynne-Jones, S. (2005b) Scale and Temporality in an Urban Settlement System: Fieldwork in Kilwa Region, Southern Tanzania. Nyame Akuma 64, 66–71.Google Scholar
  85. Wynne-Jones, S. (2007). It’s what you do with it that counts: Performed identities in the East African coastal landscape. Journal of Social Archaeology, 7(3), 325–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyWesleyan UniversityMiddletownUSA

Personalised recommendations