Narcolepsy pp 389-398 | Cite as

Fitness to Drive in Narcolepsy

Chapter

Abstract

According to projections by the World Health Organisation (WHO), road traffic injuries will be the third leading cause of global burden of disease and injury by the year 2020 [1] – in 50% of these accidents, the driver will be at fault. The main causes of death- or injury-producing accidents are excessive speed, alcohol consumption, inattention, and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS).

Keywords

Driving regulations Alertness Vigilance Narcolepsy Maintenance of wakefulness test Motor vehicle accidents 

Abbreviations

ADHD

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

DADT

Divided attention driving test

DMV

Department of Motor Vehicle

EDS

Excessive daytime sleepiness

IHS

Idiopathic hypersomnia without prolonged sleep

MVA

Motor vehicle accident

MSLT

Multiple sleep latency test

MWT

Maintenance of wakefulness test

OSAS

Obstructive sleep apnoea (hypopnea) syndrome

References

  1. 1.
    Peden M, Scurfiled R, Sleet D, Mohan D, Jayder A, Jarawan E. World Report on roaf traffic injury prevention. http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/publications/road_traffic/world_report/summary_en_rev.pdf. 2004. World Health Organization.
  2. 2.
    Arbus L, Tiberge M, Serres A, Rouge D. Drowsiness and traffic accidents. Importance of diagnosis. Neurophysiol Clin. 1991;21:39–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Akerstedt T. Consensus statement: fatigue and accidents in transport operations. J Sleep Res. 2000;9(4):395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Garbarino S, Nobili L, Beelke M, De Carli F, Ferrillo F. The contributing role of sleepiness in highway vehicle accidents. Sleep. 2001;24(2):203–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Horne JA, Reyner LA. Sleep related vehicle accidents. Br Med J. 1995;310:565–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bundesamt für Statistik. Strassenverkehrsunfälle in der Schweiz 1996. Bern: BFS; 1998.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Leger D. The cost of sleep-related accidents: a report for the national commission on sleep disorders research. Sleep. 1994;17:84–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Arbus L, Tiberge M, Serres A, Rouge D. Somnolence et accidents de la circulation routière. Importance du diagnostic. J Neurophysiol Clin. 1991;21:39–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Connor J, Whitlock G, Norton R, Jackson R. The role of driver sleepiness in car crashes: a systematic review of epidemiological studies. Accid Anal Prev. 2001;33(1):31–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Robb G, Sultana S, Ameratunga S, Jackson R. A systematic review of epidemiological studies investigating risk factors for work-related road traffic crashes and injuries. Inj Prev. 2008;14(1):51–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Brown BP. Medical conditions, medications, and driving. Can Fam Physician. 1998;44:705–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Guibert R, Duarte-Franco E, Ciampi A, Potvin L, Loiselle J, Philibert L. Medical conditions and the risk of motor vehicle crashes in men. Arch Fam Med. 1998;7(6):554–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sonnen AEH. General principles of assessment and the concept of acceptable risk. Epilepsy and Driving, a European View; a workshop of the International Bureau for Epilepsy, European Association; Eds. Internat. Bureau for Epilepsy, Heemstede, 1997; 11–30.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brown B, Baass K. Seasonal variation in frequencies and rates of highway accidents as a function of severity. Transp Res Rec. 1997;1581:59–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Horne JA, Baulk SD. Awareness of sleepiness when driving. Psychophysiology. 2004;41(1):161–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Broughton R, Ghanem Q, Hishikawa Y, Sugita Y, Nevsimalova S, Roth B. Life effects of narcolepsy in 180 patients from North America, Asia and Europe compared to matched controls. Can J Neurol Sci. 1981;8(4):299–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Broughton RJ, Guberman A, Roberts J. Comparison of the psychosocial effects of epilepsy and narcolepsy/cataplexy: a controlled study. Epilepsia. 1984;25(4):423–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Aldrich MS. Automobile accidents in patients with sleep disorders. Sleep. 1989;12:487–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Findley L, Unverzagt M, Guchu R, Fabrizio M, Buckner J, Suratt P. Vigilance and automobile accidents in patients with sleep apnea or narcolepsy. Chest. 1995;108:619–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ozaki A, Inoue Y, Nakajima T, Hayashida K, Honda M, Komada Y, et al. Health-related quality of life among drug-naive patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy, narcolepsy without cataplexy, and idiopathic hypersomnia without long sleep time. J Clin Sleep Med. 2008;4(6):572–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kotterba S, Müller N, Steiner G, Mayer G. Driving in narcolepsy – analysis by questionnaire among patients (article in German). Somnologie. 2002;6:39–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    George CFG, Boudreau AC, Smiley A. Comparison of simulated driving performance in narcolepsy and sleep apnea patients. Sleep. 1996;19:711–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sagaspe P, Taillard J, Chaumet G, Guilleminault C, Coste O, Moore N, et al. Maintenance of wakefulness test a predictor of driving performance in patients with untreated obstructive sleep Apnea. Sleep. 2007;30(3):327–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    De Raedt R, Ponjaert-Kristoffersen I. Can strategic and tactical compensation reduce crash risk in older drivers? Age Ageing. 2000;29(6):517–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Findley LJ, Suratt PM, Dinges DF. Time-on-task decrements in “steer clear” performance of patients with sleep apnea and narcolepsy. Sleep. 1999;22(6):804–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kotterba S, Müller N, Steiner G, Mayer G. Narkolepsie und Fahrtauglichkeit. Narcolepsy and driving. Akt Neurol. 2004;31:273–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pakola SJ, Dinges DF, Pack AI. Driving and sleepiness review of regulations and guidelines for commercial and noncommercial drivers with sleep apnea and narcolepsy. Sleep. 1995;18:787–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Krieger J, McNicholas WT, Levy P, De Backer W, Douglas N, Marrone O, et al. Public health and medicolegal implications of sleep apnoea. Eur Respir J. 2002;20(6):1594–609.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Alonderis A, Barbe F, Bonsignore M, Calverley P, De Backer W, Diefenbach K, et al. Medico-legal implications of sleep apnoea syndrome: driving license regulations in Europe. Sleep Med. 2007;9(4):362–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Aldrich CK, Aldrich MS, Aldrich TK, Aldrich RF. Asleep at the wheel: the physician’s role in preventing accidents ‘just waiting to happen’. Postgrad Med J. 1986;80:233–40.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Horne JA, Reyner LA. Counteracting driver sleepiness: effects of napping, caffeine, and placebo. Psychophysiology. 1996;33(3):306–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Reyner LA, Horne JA. Evaluation of ‘in-car’ countermeasures to sleepiness: cold air and radio. Sleep. 1998;21(1):46–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Philip P, Sagaspe P, Taillard J, Valtat C, Moore N, Akerstedt T, et al. Fatigue, sleepiness, and performance in simulated versus real driving conditions. Sleep. 2005;28(12):1511–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mathis J, Seeger R, Kehrer P, Wirtz G. Fahreignung bei Schläfrigkeit: Empfehlungen für Ärzte bei der Betreuung von Patienten mit vermehrter Schläfrigkeit. Schweiz Med Forum, 2007; 328–32.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Reyner LA, Horne JA. Falling asleep whilst driving: are drivers aware of prior sleepiness? Int J Leg Med. 1998;111(3):120–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mitler MM, Gujavarty KS, Browman CP. Maintenance of wakefulness test: a polysomnographic technique for evaluating treatment efficacy in patients with excessive somnolence. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1982;53:658–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Doghramji K, Mitler MM, Sangal RB, Shapiro C, Taylor S, Walsleben J, et al. A normative study of the maintenance of wakefulness test (MWT). Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1997;103(5):554–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Banks S, Barnes M, Tarquinio N, Pierce RJ, Lack LC, McEvoy RD. The maintenance of wakefulness test in normal healthy subjects. Sleep. 2004;27(4):799–802.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Philip P, Sagaspe P, Taillard J, Chaumet G, Bayon V, Coste O, et al. Maintenance of wakefulness test, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and driving risk. Ann Neurol. 2008;64(4):410–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sagaspe P, Taillard J, Akerstedt T, Bayon V, Espie S, Chaumet G, et al. Extended driving impairs nocturnal driving performances. PLoS ONE. 2008;3(10):e3493.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Rogers AE, Aldrich MS, Lin X. A comparison of three different sleep schedules for reducing daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy. Sleep. 2001;24(4):385–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gijerde H, Christophersen AS, Morland J. Amphetamine and drugged driving. J Traffic Med. 1992;20:21–6.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hurst PM. Amphetamines and driving. Alcohol Drugs Driving. 1987;3:13–7.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Mills KC, Spruill SE, Kanne RW, Parkman KM, Zhang Y. The influence of stimulants, sedatives, and fatigue on tunnel vision: risk factors for driving and piloting. Hum Factors. 2001;43(2):310–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Halliday R, Naylor H, Brandeis D, Callaway E, Yano L, Herzig K. The effect of D-amphetamine, clonidine, and yohimbine on human information processing. Psychophysiology. 1994;31(4):331–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    de Wit H, Enggasser JL, Richards JB. Acute administration of d-amphetamine decreases impulsivity in healthy volunteers. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2002;27(5):813–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Mitler MM, Hajdukovic R, Erman M, Koziol JA. Narcolepsy. J Clin Neurophysiol. 1990;7(1):93–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Mitler MM, Hajdukovic R, Erman MK. Treatment of narcolepsy with methamphetamine. Sleep. 1993;16(4):306–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Godbout R, Montplaisir J. All-day performance variations in normal and narcoleptic subjects. Sleep. 1986;9(1 Pt 2):200–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sleep Disorders Centre and Department of NeurologyInselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of BernBernSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations