Living Environment

  • P. H. Chau
  • Moses Wong
  • Jean Woo
Part of the International Perspectives on Aging book series (Int. Perspect. Aging, volume 5)


Apart from personal factors, the living environment constitutes the other major group of factors that contribute to aging well. While there have been many studies on the impact of personal factors, such as lifestyle, socioeconomic, and psychosocial factors on aging well, there have been comparatively few studies on the impact of the living environment on health outcomes relevant for aging populations. This chapter presents findings of studies in spatial and temporal variation in health outcomes among the Hong Kong elderly population, and examines possible causes such as neighborhood characteristics, urban design, air pollution, and environmental temperature, including an environmental scan of one district with respect to the World Health Organization age-friendly city criteria. Comparisons with other countries are made. There are many unanswered questions regarding how various aspects of the environment may affect health outcomes in older people, and also many methodological challenges in addressing these questions. More interdisciplinary research and funding support are needed in order to achieve an optimal living environment for healthy aging.


Social Participation Neighborhood Environment Urban Design Civic Participation Hospital Authority 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Social SciencesThe University of Hong KongShatinHong Kong
  2. 2.Faculty of MedicineThe Chinese University of Hong KongShatinHong Kong
  3. 3.Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, and The Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of MedicineThe Chinese University of Hong KongShatinHong Kong

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