The Joule-Thomson Effect, Its Inversion and Other Expansions

  • Ben-Zion Maytal
  • John M. Pfotenhauer
Part of the International Cryogenics Monograph Series book series (ICMS)


James Joule and William Thomson discovered the effect bearing their names and measured it at low pressures for air, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and mixtures of air and carbon dioxide. Since “…the thermal effects experienced by air in rushing through small apertures” were discovered1, about 16 decades ago, the effect has been continuously examined, measured and studied. This elementary effect is the driving force that initiates, empowers and perpetuates the operation of the Linde-Hampson machines, the Joule-Thomson cryocoolers, liquefiers and refrigerators that utilize the throttling effect.


Virial Coefficient Inversion Temperature Saturation Line Fluid Phase Equilibrium Inversion State 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ben-Zion Maytal
    • 1
  • John M. Pfotenhauer
    • 2
  1. 1.Missiles and NCW DivisionRafael Advanced Defense Systems Ltd.HaifaIsrael
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA

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