Cryocoolers: The Common Principle

  • Ben-Zion Maytal
  • John M. Pfotenhauer
Part of the International Cryogenics Monograph Series book series (ICMS)


It is simple to reduce the temperature by about \(25\;K\) below ambient, but it is much harder to reduce the temperature by about \(250\;K\). One may find a single phenomenon that reduces the temperature by \(25\;K\), such as the expansion of a compressed gas or the thermoelectric effect. However, there is no single physical effect that alone can take us \(250\;K\) below ambient. Nevertheless, the devices under the heading of cryocoolers do so. This means that cryocoolers have the capability of amplifying or accumulating a relatively small temperature drop into a large temperature reduction below ambient. This fundamental feature is the essence of cryocoolers. The temporal development of this magnifying evolution is the cooldown process. Dr. Charles William Siemens in 1857, in England, focused precisely on this issue in his invention of the “Refrigeration Apparatus”, there teaching how


Heat Exchanger Entropy Generation Vortex Tube Pulse Tube Pinch Point 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ben-Zion Maytal
    • 1
  • John M. Pfotenhauer
    • 2
  1. 1.Missiles and NCW DivisionRafael Advanced Defense Systems Ltd.HaifaIsrael
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA

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