Skip to main content

Internet of Things

Part of the Real-Time Systems Series book series (RTSS)


The connection of physical things to the Internet makes it possible to access remote sensor data and to control the physical world from a distance. The mash-up of captured data with data retrieved from other sources, e.g., with data that is contained in the Web, gives rise to new synergistic services that go beyond the services that can be provided by an isolated embedded system. The Internet of Things is based on this vision. A smart object, which is the building block of the Internet of Things, is just another name for an embedded system that is connected to the Internet. There is another technology that points in the same direction – the RFID technology. The RFID technology, an extension of the ubiquitous optical bar codes that are found on many every-day products, requires the attachment of a smart low-cost electronic ID-tag to a product such that the identity of a product can be decoded from a distance. By putting more intelligence into the ID tag, the tagged thing becomes a smart object. The novelty of the Internet-of-Things (IoT) is not in any new disruptive technology, but in the pervasive deployment of smart objects.


  • Sensor Node
  • Wireless Sensor Network
  • Smart Object
  • Composite Object
  • Physical Thing

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
USD   79.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Hardcover Book
USD   99.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Learn about institutional subscriptions


  1. Baronti, P., et al. (2007). Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey on the State of the Art and the 802.15.4 and Zigbee Standards. Computer Communication, Vol. 30. Elsevier. (pp. 1655-1695).

    Google Scholar 

  2. Bhattacharayya, R. et al. (2010). Low-Cost, Ubiquitous RFID-Tag-Antenna-Based Sensing. Proc. of the IEEE. Vol. 98(10). (pp. 1593-1600).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  3. Finkenzeller, K. (2003). RFID Handbook. John Wiley and Sons.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Gadh, R., et al. (2010). RFID: A unique Radio Innovation for the 21st Century. Proc. of the IEEE. Vol. 98(2). (pp. 1541-1680).

    Google Scholar 

  5. Huebscher, M.C. & J.A. McCann. (2008). A Survey of Autonomic Computing–Degrees, Models and Applications. ACM Computing Surveys. Vol. 40(3). (pp. 7.1-7.28).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  6. Juels, A. & S.A. Weis. (2005). Authenticating Pervasive Devices with Human Protocols. In: Proc. of CRYPTO 2005. Springer Verlag. (pp. 293-308).

    Google Scholar 

  7. Kortuem, G., et al. (2010). Smart Objects as the Building Block for the Internet of Things. IEEE Internet Computing, Jan 2010). (pp. 44-50).

    Google Scholar 

  8. Kumar, K. & Y.H. Lu (2020). Cloud Computing for Mobile Users: Can Offloading Computation Save Energy? IEEE Computer, April 2010. (pp. 51-56).

    Google Scholar 

  9. Langley, P., J.E. Laird, & S. Rogers. (2009). Cognitive Architectures: Research Issues and Challenges. Cognitive System Research. Vol. 10(2). (pp. 141-160).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  10. Landwehr, C.E. & D.M. Goldschlag. (1997). Security Issues in Networks with Internet Access. Proc. of the IEEE. Vol. 85(12). (pp. 2034-2051).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  11. Pappu, R., et al. (2002). Physical One-Way Functions. Science. Vol. 297. (pp. 2026-2030).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  12. Vermesan, O. et al. (2009). Internet of Things—Strategic Research Roadmap. European Commission-Information Society and Media DG. Brussels.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Washington’s Axe. (2010). Wikipedia, URL:

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hermann Kopetz .

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Kopetz, H. (2011). Internet of Things. In: Real-Time Systems. Real-Time Systems Series. Springer, Boston, MA.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Boston, MA

  • Print ISBN: 978-1-4419-8236-0

  • Online ISBN: 978-1-4419-8237-7

  • eBook Packages: Computer ScienceComputer Science (R0)