Shear Stress Measurements in Stainless Steel 2169 Under 1D Shock Loading

  • G. WhitemanEmail author
  • J. C. F. Millett
Conference paper
Part of the Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series book series (CPSEMS)


The material addressed in this research is stainless steel 2169, a 200 series stainless steel which has so far found applications in aviation, demolition, motor-vehicle design and nuclear reactor containment. Longitudinal and lateral stresses during the shock loading of 2169 have been measured using manganin stress gauges. The shear strength has been shown to increase with impact stress and it is seen that when compared with another common austenitic stainless steel (304L) the initial HEL is greater, but that 2169 has a lesser degree of hardening with increased impact stress. The results are discussed in terms of structure and degree of alloying.


Longitudinal Stress Lateral Stress Impact Stress Flyer Plate Hugoniot Elastic Limit 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Whiteman, G., MPhil Dissertation, Cambridge University: Studies of SS 21-6-9 Varied Strain-Rates 2007.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Whiteman, G., et al. Spall Experiments on Stainless Steel 21-6-9 Varying Pulse Lengths and Longitudinal Stress. in Proceedings of the SCCM Conference. 2009: American Institute of Physics.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Maulik, P., et al., Structural Changes in 21-6-9 Stainless Steel on Low-Temperature Deformation. Scripta Metallurgica, 1983. 17(2): p. 233-236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kassner, M.E., et al., Yield stress of type 21-6-9 stainless steel over a wide range of strain rates (10 -5 -10 4 s -1 ) and temperatures. Mechanical Properties at High Rates of Strain, 1984: p. 47-54.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Follansbee, P.S., High-Strain-Rate Deformation of FCC Metals and Alloys. International Conference on Metallurgical Applications of Shock-Wave and High-Strain-Rate Phenomena, 1985. 28: p. 451-479.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gu, Z., et al., Shock response of stainless steel at high temperature. J. Mat. Sci., 2000. 35(9): p. 2347-51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Huang, S., et al. Experimental measurements of 2169 stainless steel under dynamic loading. in Proceedings of the SCCM Conference. 1994: American Institute of Physics.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wise, J.L., et al. Hugoniot and wave-profile measurements on shock-loaded stainless steel (21Cr-6Ni-9Mn). in Proceedings of the SCCM Conference. 1987: American Institute of Physicss.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gust, W.H., et al., Hugoniot parameters to 320 GPa for 3 types of steel. High Temp. High Pres., 1979. 11.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brusso, J.A., et al. Use of electric gun experiments to study the shock deformation behaviour of 21-6-9 stainless steel. in Proceedings of the SCCM Conference. 1987: American Institute of Physics.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Meyer, L.W., et al. Interdependencies between the dynamic mechanical properties and the ballistic behavior of materials. in 12th Int. Symp. Ballistics 1990. 1990. San Antonio, Texas.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schramm, R.E., et al., Stacking fault energies of seven commercial austenitic stainless steels. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 1975. 6(8): p. 1345-1351.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Feng, R., et al., Material strength and inelastic deformation of silicon carbide under shock wave compression. J. App. Phys., 1998. 83: p. 79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gupta, S.C., et al., Piezoresistance response of longitudinally and laterally oriented ytterbium foils subjected to impact and quasi-static loading. J. App. Phys., 1985. 57: p. 2464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Millett, J.C.F., et al., On the analysis of transverse stress gauge data from shock loading experiments. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 1996. 29(9): p. 2466-2472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rosenberg, Z., et al., Longitudinal dynamic stress measurements with in-material piezoresistive gauges. J. App. Phys., 1985. 58: p. 1814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rosenberg, Z., et al., Calibration of foil-like manganin gauges in planar shock wave experiments. J. App. Phys., 1980. 51: p. 3702-3705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rosenberg, Z., et al., Lateral stress measurement in shock-loaded targets with transverse piezoresistance gauges. J. App. Phys., 1985. 58: p. 3072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rosenberg, Z., et al. in Proceedings of the SCCM Conference. 2005: American Institute of Physics.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Barker, L.M., et al., Laser interferometer for measuring high velocities of any reflecting surface. J. App. Phys., 1972. 43: p. 4669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Barker, L.M., et al., Interferometer Technique for Measuring the Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Materials. Review of Scientific Instruments, 1965. 36: p. 1617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Strand, O.T., Compact system for high-speed velocimetry using heterodyne techniques, . Rev. Sci. Instrum., 2006. 77: p. 083018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Strand, O.T., Whitworth, T. L. Using the Heterodyne Method to Measure Velocities on Shock Physics Experiments. in Proceedings of the SCCM Conference. 2007: American Institute of Physics.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Barker, L.M., et al., Shock-Wave Studies of PMMA, Fused Silica, and Sapphire. J. App. Phys., 1970. 41(10): p. 4208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Marsh, S.P., LASL Shock Hugoniot Data. 1980: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Millett, J.C.F., et al., Shear stress measurements in copper, iron, and mild steel under shock loading conditions. J. App. Phys., 1997. 81: p. 2579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Whiteman, G., et al. Longitudinal and Lateral Stress Measurements in Stainless Steel 304 Under 1D Shock Loading. in Proceedings of the SCCM Conference. 2007: American Institute of Physics.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Winter, R.E., et al., Measurement of stress perturbations caused by lateral gauges. J. Phys. D., 2008. 41.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Millett, J.C.F., et al., The Behavior of Ni, Ni-60Co, and Ni3Al during One-Dimensional Shock Loading. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 2008. 39A: p. 322 - 334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Millett, J.C.F., et al., Lateral stress and shear strength behind the shock front in three face centred cubic metals. J. App. Phys, 2009. 105.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.AWEBerkshireUK

Personalised recommendations