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Peruvian Archaeology: Its Growth, Characteristics, Practice, and Challenge

Chapter

Abstract

Peruvian archaeology is undeniably a synergetic product of Peruvian and Peruvianist practitioners and we strive to present and balance their perspectives and accomplishments since the late nineteenth century. The relationship between them has had its moments of difficulty, but its continuing development hinges on mutual respect and collaboration. Peruvian archaeology has come to be characterized by a number of important features such as an emphasis on archaeology-ethnohistory dialectics, provincial studies that focus on intrusive state–local relationships, culture–environment interaction along altitudinal and latitudinal dimensions, paleoenvironmental reconstruction and its social ramifications, and iconographic/stylistic and gravelot analysis. The Peruvian theoretical stance has been strongly tied to political ideology; the notion of the mother culture bears a strong imprint of the indigenísta (pronative) movement, while the more recent “social archaeology” a Marxian ideological foundation. Today, beside a curious mixture of cultural, historical, and social archaeological concerns, there is an abiding interest in the earliest, the largest, and the most spectacular that seems to explain the focus on selected monumental sites. On the Peruvianist side, reflecting its diverse intellectual backgrounds, culture-historical, processual (strong ecological emphasis), and postprocessual schools coexist, although there has been a definite rise in the application of the last (e.g., concepts of agency, practice, and memory). The most significant recent development in Peruvian archaeology has been the rapid expansion of culture management and tourism-oriented archaeology and related changes in the training and employment of Peruvian archaeologists. Factors that shaped current trends and foci in the practice of archaeology are explicated within the context of the social, political, and economic transformations that have taken place over the last two decades. The paper concludes with a discussion of future tasks for and directions of Peruvian archaeology.

Keywords

Archaeological Site North Coast Valley Project Cultural Heritage Management Archaeological Fieldwork 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgment

We thank Melody J. Shimada for her valuable comments and editorial ­assistance. Rafael A. Segura and Gabriela Cervantes also provided us with helpful comments. We are grateful to G. Cervantes for preparing Figure 1 and R. Segura for his help in compiling the bibliography. The photo of Max Uhle was provided by the Department of Archives of the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania. Yutaka Yoshii graciously offered us the use of his photographs of Luis G. Lumbreras and María Rostworowski. We thank Harold Conklin, the Larco Herrera Museum, and the Museum of Anthropology and Archaeology of the National University of San Marcos in Lima for providing us with a photograph of John H. Rowe, Rafael Larco, and Julio C. Tello, respectively.

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Anthropology, Faner HallSouthern Illinois UniversityCarbondaleUSA

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