Small Game and Marine Resource Exploitation by Neanderthals: The Evidence from Gibraltar

  • Kimberly Brown
  • Darren A. Fa
  • Geraldine Finlayson
  • Clive Finlayson

Abstract

Debates surrounding Neanderthals and Anatomically Modern Humans (AMH) tend to focus primarily on discussions of cognitive ability, as exemplified by perceived differences in stone tool technology, behaviour and extinction outcomes. One of the primarily cited differences involves the subsistence strategies practised by these different groups of humans (Brown 2009).

References

  1. Anderson, A.J. 1981. A model of prehistoric collecting on the rocky shore. Journal of Archaeological Science, 8:109–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bailey, G.N. 1975. The role of mollusks in coastal economies: the results of midden analysis in Australia. Journal of Archaeological Science, 2:45–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bailey, G.N. 1978. Shell middens as indicators of postglacial economies: a territorial perspective. In P.A. Mellars [Ed.], The Early Postglacial Settlement of Northern Europe. Duckworth: London, pp. 37–63.Google Scholar
  4. Bailey, G.N. 1983. Problems of site formation and the interpretation of spatial and temporal ­discontinuities in the distribution of coastal middens. In P.M. Masters and N.C. Flemming [Eds.], Quaternary Coastlines and Marine Archaeology. Academic Press, London, pp. 559–582.Google Scholar
  5. Bailey, G.N. and N.C. Flemming 2008. Archaeology of the continental shelf: Marine resources, submerged landscapes and underwater archaeology. Quaternary Science Reviews, 27 (23-24):2153–2165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bailey, G.N., J.S. Carrión, D.A. Fa, C. Finlayson, G. Finlayson and J. Rodríguez-Vidal 2008. The coastal shelf of the Mediterranean and beyond: corridor and refugium for human populations in the Pleistocene. Quaternary Science Reviews, 27 (23-24), 2095–2099.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Balter, V. and L. Simon 2006. Diet and behaviour of the Saint-Cesaire Neanderthal inferred from biogeochemical data inversion, Journal of Human Evolution, 51:329–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barton, R.N.E. 2000. Middle and Upper Palaeolithic occupation evidence from Gorham’s and Vanguard Caves 1995–7. In C.B. Stringer, R.N.E. Barton, and J.C. Finlayson [Eds], Neanderthals on the edge: 150th anniversary conference of the Forbes’ Quarry discovery, Gibraltar. Oxford: Oxbow. pp. 211–220.Google Scholar
  9. Bar-Yosef, O. 2004. Eat what is there: hunting and gathering in the world of Neanderthals and their neighbours. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 14:333–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bicho, N. and J. Haws 2008. At the land’s end: marine resources and the importance of fluctuations in the coastline in the prehistoric hunter-gatherer economy of Portugal. Quaternary Science Reviews, 27(23–24): 2166–2175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bocherens, H., D. Billiou, A. Mariotti, M. Patou-Mathis, M. Otte, D. Bonjean et al. 1999. Palaeoenvironmental and Palaeodietary Implications of Isotopic Biogeochemistry of Last Interglacial Neanderthal and Mammal Bones in Scladina Cave (Belgium). Journal of Archaeological Science, 26: 599-607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bocherens, H., D.G. Drucker, D. Billiou, M. Patou-Mathis and B. Vandermeersch 2005. Isotopic evidence for diet and subsistence pattern of the Saint-Césaire I Neanderthal: review and use of a multi-source mixing model. Journal of Human Evolution, 49:71–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boyle, K.V. 2000. Reconstructing Middle Palaeolithic Subsistence Strategies in the South of France. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 10:336–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brown, K. 2009. The Middle to Upper Palaeolithic Transition in an Iberian Refugium: A Comparative Study of the Subsistence Strategies and Ecologies of Neanderthal and Modern Human Populations at Gorham’s Cave, Gibraltar, in the wider context of Iberia. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Cambridge, U.K.Google Scholar
  15. Brown, K. in press. The Partridge in the Pine Tree - A comparative study for the exploitation of small game by Neanderthal and Modern Human populations at Gorham’s Cave, Gibraltar. In C. Finlayson et al. [Eds], Where the Last Neanderthals Lived, Oxbow Books, Oxford.Google Scholar
  16. Burke, A. 2004. The Ecology of Neanderthals: Preface. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 14:155–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Byers, D.A. and A. Ugan 2005. Should we expect large game specialisation in the Late Pleistocene? An Optimal Foraging Perspective on early Palaeoindian Prey Choice. Journal of Archaeological Science, 32:1624–1640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carrión, J.S., C. Finlayson, N. Fuentes, G. Finlayson, S. Fernández, E. Allué, A. López-Sáez, P. López-García and P. González-Sampériz 2008. A coastal reservoir of biodiversity for Upper Pleistocene human populations. Quaternary Science Reviews, 27 (23-24):2118–2135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Clark, G.A. 1971. The Asturian of Cantabria: subsistence base and the evidence for Post-Pleistocene climatic shifts. American Anthropologist, 73:1244–1257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Coles, J.M. 1971. The early settlement of Scotland: excavations at Morton, Fife. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, 37:284–366.Google Scholar
  21. Cortés-Sánchez, M., A. Morales-Muñiz, M.D. Simón-Vallejo, M. Bergadà-Zapata, A. Delgado-Huertas, P. López-García, J.A. López-Sáez, M.C. Lozano-Francisco, J.A. Riquelme-Cantal, E. Roselló-Izquierdo, A. Sánchez-Marco and J.L. Vera Peláez 2008. Palaeoenvironmental and cultural dynamics of the Coast of Malaga (Andalusia, Spain) during the Upper Pleistocene and Early Holocene. Quaternary Science Reviews, 27 (23-24):2176–2193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Currant, A.P. 2000. A Review of the Quaternary Mammals of Gibraltar. In C.B. Stringer, R.N.E. Barton, and J.C. Finlayson [Eds], Neanderthals on the edge: 150th anniversary conference of the Forbes’ Quarry discovery, Gibraltar, pp. 201–206. Oxford: Oxbow..Google Scholar
  23. Drucker, D. and H. Bocherens 2004. Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotopes as Tracers of Change in Diet Breadth during the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic in Europe. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 14:162–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Erlandson, J. 1988. The role of shellfish in prehistoric economies: a protein perspective. American Antiquity, 53:102–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Erlandson, J. 1994. Early Hunter-Gatherers of the California Coast. Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  26. Fa, D.A. 1998. The Influence of Pattern and Scale on Rocky-Shore Macrofaunal Communities along the Mediterranean/Atlantic Interface through the Straits of Gibraltar. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Southampton, UK.Google Scholar
  27. Fa, D.A. 2008. Effects of tidal amplitude on intertidal resource availability and dispersal pressure in prehistoric human coastal populations: the Mediterranean-Atlantic transition. Quaternary Science Reviews, 27 (23-24):2194–2209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fa, D.A. in press. A Report on the Marine Mollusca from the Gorham’s Cave Excavations 1998–2005: Preliminary Results and Interpretation. In C. Finlayson et al. [Eds], Where the Last Neanderthals Lived, Oxbow Books, Oxford.Google Scholar
  29. Fernández-Jalvo, Y. and P. Andrews 2000. The taphonomy of Pleistocene caves, with particular reference to Gibraltar. In: C.B Stringer, R.N.E. Barton and J.C. Finlayson [Eds.] Neanderthals on the Edge, 171-182. Oxford: Oxbow.Google Scholar
  30. Finlayson, J.C. 2004. Neanderthals and Modern Humans. An Ecological and Evolutionary Perspective. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Finlayson, G. 2006. Climate, Vegetation and Biodiversity – a Multiscale Study of the South of the Iberian Peninsula. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Anglia Ruskin, UK.Google Scholar
  32. Finlayson, J.C. and J.S. Carrión 2007. Rapid ecological turnover and its impact on Neanderthal and other human populations. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 22:213–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Finlayson, J.C. and F. Giles Pacheco 2000. The Southern Iberian Peninsula in the Late Pleistocene: Geography, Ecology and Human Occupation. In C.B. Stringer, R.N.E. Barton, and J.C. Finlayson [Eds], Neanderthals on the edge: 150th anniversary conference of the Forbes’ Quarry discovery, Gibraltar, pp. 139–153. Oxford: Oxbow.Google Scholar
  34. Finlayson, J.C., R.N.E. Barton and C.B. Stringer 2000. The Gibraltar Neanderthals and their extinction. In J. Zilhao, T. Aubry and A. Faustino Carvalho [Eds], Les premieres homes modernes de la Péninsule Ibérique, pp. 117–122. Trabalhos de Arqueologia, 17.Google Scholar
  35. Finlayson, J.C., F. Giles Pacheco, J. Rodriguez-Vidal, D.A. Fa, J.M. Gutierrez Lopez, A. Santiago Perez, G. Finlayson, E. Allue, J. Preysler, I. Cáceres, J.S. Carrión, Y. Férnandez Jalvo, C. Gleed-Owen, F.J. Jimenez Espejo, P. López, J.A. López Sáez, J.A. Riquelme Cantal, A. Sánchez Marco, F. Giles Guzman, K. Brown, N. Fuentes, C. Valarino, A. Villalpando, C. Stringer, F. Martinez Ruiz and T. Sakamoto 2006. Late survival of Neanderthals at the southernmost extreme of Europe. Nature, 443:850–853.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Finlayson, G., C. Finlayson, F. Giles Pacheco, F. Rodriguez Vidal, J.S. Carrión and J.M.R. Espejo 2007. Caves as archives of ecological and climatic changes in the Pleistocene: the case of Gorham’s Cave, Gibraltar. Quaternary International, 181(1):55–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Finlayson, G., C. Finlayson and J.M.R. Espejo 2008a. Dynamics of a Thermo-Mediterranean coastal environment – Coto Doñana National Park. Quaternary Science Reviews, 27 (23-24):2145–2152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Finlayson, J.C., D.A. Fa, F. Jimenez-Espejo, J.S. Carrion, G. Finlayson, F. Giles-Pacheco, J. Rodríguez Vidal, C. Stringer and F. Martinez Ruiz, 2008b. Gorham’s Cave, Gibraltar - The persistence of a Neanderthal population. Quaternary International, 181:64–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fischer, P. (1928). Appendix C: Fossil mollusca. In D.A.E. Garrod, L.H.D. Buxton, G. Elliot Smith and D.M.A. Bate [Eds.], Excavation of a Mousterian Rock Shelter at Devil’s Tower, Gibraltar. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 58, pp. 111–113.Google Scholar
  40. Gale, R. and W. Carruthers 2000. Charchoal and Charred seed remains from Middle Palaeolithic Levels at Gorham’s and Vanguard Caves, In C.B. Stringer, R.N.E. Barton, and J.C. Finlayson [Eds], Neanderthals on the edge: 150th anniversary conference of the Forbes’ Quarry discovery, Gibraltar, pp. 207–210. Oxford: Oxbow.Google Scholar
  41. Gamble, C. 1993. Timewalkers: The Prehistory of Global Colonization. Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing.Google Scholar
  42. Garrod, D., L. Buxton, G. Elliot-Smith and D. Bate 1928. Excavation of a Mousterian rock-shelter at Devil’s Tower, Gibraltar. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 58:33–113.Google Scholar
  43. Haws, J. 2004. An Iberian Perspective on Upper Palaeolithic Plant Consumption. Promontoria, 2:49­–106.Google Scholar
  44. Haws, J. and B.S. Hockett 2004. Theoretical perspectives on the dietary role of small animals in human evolution. In J.P. Brugal, and J. Desse [Eds.], Petits Animaux et Societes Humanes. Du Complement Alimentaire aux Resources Utilitaires, pp. 533–544. Antibes: APDCA.Google Scholar
  45. Hockett, B.S. 2006. Paleolithic subsistence and the taphonomy of small mammal accumulations in the Iberian Peninsula. In J.A. Haws, B.S. Hockett and J.-P. Brugal [Eds.], Paleolithic Zooarchaeology in Practice, pp. 39–44. BAR International Series 1564.Google Scholar
  46. Hockett, B.S. and B.N. Ferreira 2000. The Rabbits of Picareiro Cave: Small mammal hunting during the Late Upper Palaeolithic in the Portugese extremadura. Journal of Archaeological Science, 27:715–723.Google Scholar
  47. Hockett, B.S. and J. Haws 2003. Nutritional ecology and diachronic trends in Paleolithic diet and health. Evolutionary Anthropology, 12:211–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jimenez-Espejo, F.  J., F. Martinez-Ruiz, J.  C. Finlayson, A. Paytane, T. Sakamoto, M. Ortega-Huertas, G. Finlayson, K. Iijima, D. Gallego-Torres, D.A. Fa 2007. Climate forcing and Neanderthal extinction in southern Iberia: insights from a multiproxy marine record. Quaternary Science Reviews, 26:836–852.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Klein, R.G. 1989. Why does skeletal part representation differ between smaller and larger bovids at Klasies River Mouth and other archaeological sites? Journal of Archaeological Science, 6:363–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Klein, R.G. 1999. The Human Career. Chicago University Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  51. Klein, R.G. 2001. Southern Africa and modern human origins. Journal of Anthropological Research, 57(1):1–16.Google Scholar
  52. Klein, R.G. and K. Cruz-Uribe 1996. Exploitation of large bovids and seals at Middle and Later Stone Age sites in South Africa. Journal of Human Evolution, 31:315–334.Google Scholar
  53. Klein, R.G. and K. Cruz-Uribe 2000. Middle and Later Stone Age large mammal and tortoise remains from Die Kelders Cave 1, Western Cape Province, South Africa. Journal of Human Evolution, 38:169–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Klein, R.G., G. Avery, K. Cruz-Uribe, D. Halkett, J.E. Parkington, T. Steele et al. 2004. The Ysterfontein 1 Middle Stone Age site, South Africa, and early human exploitation of coastal resources. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 101 (16):5708–5715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Klein, R.G., G. Avery, K. Cruz-Uribe and T.  E. Steele 2007. The mammalian fauna associated with an archaic hominin skullcap and later Acheulean artifacts at Elandsfontein Western Cape Province, South Africa. Journal of Human Evolution, 52(2):164–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Laroulandie, V. 2005. Anthropogenic versus non-anthropogenic bird bone assemblages: new criteria for their distinction. In T. O’Connor [Ed.], Biosphere to Lithosphere: New Studies in Vertebrae Taphonomy, pp. 25–30. Oxford: Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
  57. Lee, R.B. and R. Daly (Eds.) 1999. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Hunters and Gatherers. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 511 pages.Google Scholar
  58. Lee-Thorp, J. and M. Sponheimer 2006. Contributions of biogeochemistry to understanding hominin dietary ecology. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology,  49:131–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Meighan, C.E. 1969. Molluscs as food remains in archaeological sites. In D.R. Brothwell and E.S. Higgs [Eds.], Science in Archaeology, pp. 415.422. 2nd Ed. Thames & Hudson, London.Google Scholar
  60. Noli, D. and G. Avery 1988. Protein poisoning and coastal subsistence. Journal of Archaeological Science, 15:395–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. O’Connell, J.F., K. Hawkes and N. Blurton Jones 1988a. Hadza hunting, butchering and bone transport and their archaeological implications. Journal of Anthropological Research, 44(2):113–161.Google Scholar
  62. O’Connell, J.F., K. Hawkes and N. Blurton Jones 1988b. Hadza scavenging: implications for Plio/Pleistocene hominid subsistence. Current Anthropology, 29(2):356–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Perez-Ripoll, M. 1992. Marcas de Carnicería, Fracturas Intencionadas y Mordeduras de Carnívoros. Alicante: Graficas Estilo, s.c.Google Scholar
  64. Richards, M.P., P. Pettitt, E. Trinkaus, F.H. Smith, M. Paunović and I. Karavanić 2000. Neanderthal diet at Vindija and Neanderthal predation: the evidence from stable isotopes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 97:7663–7666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Richards, M.P., P.B. Pettitt, M.C. Stiner and E. Trinkaus 2001. Stable isotope evidence for increasing dietary breadth in the European mid-Upper Palaeolithic. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 98(11):6528–6532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Richards, M.P., R. Jacobi, J. Cook, P.B. Pettitt and C.B. Stringer 2005. Isotope Evidence for the intensive use of marine foods by Late Palaeolithic humans. Journal of Human Evolution, 49:390–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Richards, M.P., G. Taylor, T. Steele, S.P. McPherron, M. Soressi, J. Jaubert, J. Orschiedt, J.B. Mallye, W. Rendu and J.J. Hublin 2008. Isotopic dietary analysis of a Neanderthal and associated fauna from the site of Jonzac (Charente-Maritime), France. Journal of Human Evolution, 55  :179–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Riquelme Cantal, J.A. In press. Estudio de los restos óseos de mamíferos recuperados en las campañas de excavación de los años 1999, 2000 y 2003 en el yacimiento arqueológico de Gorham’s Cave, Gibraltar. In C. Finlayson et al. [Eds], Where the Last Neanderthals Lived, Oxbow Books, Oxford.Google Scholar
  69. Rodríguez-Vidal, J., L.M. Cáceres, J.C. Finlayson, F.J. Gracia and A. Martínez-Aguirre 2004. Neotectonics and shoreline history of the Rock of Gibraltar, southern Iberia. Quaternary Science Reviews, 23:2017–2029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Shawcross, F.W. 1970. Ethnographic economics and the study of population in prehistoric New Zealand: viewed through archaeology. Mankind, 7:279–291.Google Scholar
  71. Speth, J.D. and K.A. Spielmann 1983. Energy source, protein metabolism, and hunter-gatherer subsistence strategies. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 2:1–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Stiner, M.C. 1994. Honor Among Thieves, Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  73. Stiner, M.C., N.D. Munro, T.A. Surovell, E. Tchernov and O. Bar-Yosef 1999. Paleolithic population growth pulses evidenced by small animal exploitation. Science, 283:190–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Stiner, M.C., N.D. Munro and T.A. Surovell 2000. The Tortoise and the Hare: small-game use, the broad spectrum revolution, and paleolithic demography. Current Anthropology, 41:39–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Stiner, M.C., N.F. Bicho, J. Lindly and R. Ferring 2003. Mesolithic to Neolithic transitions: new results from shell-middens in the western Algarve, Portugal. Antiquity, 77:75–86.Google Scholar
  76. Stringer, C.B. 2000. Gibraltar and the Neanderthals 1848-1998. In C.B. Stringer, R.N.E. Barton, and J.C. Finlayson [Eds], Neanderthals on the edge: 150th anniversary conference of the Forbes’ Quarry discovery, Gibraltar, pp. 133–137. Oxford: Oxbow.Google Scholar
  77. Stringer, C.B., R.N. Barton, A.P. Currant, J.C. Finlayson, P. Goldberg, R. Macphail et al. 1999. Gibraltar Palaeolithic Revisited: New Excavations at Gorham’s and Vanguard Caves. In: W. Davies, and R. Charles [Eds.], Dorothy Garrod and the Progress of the Palaeolithic. Studies in the Prehistoric Archaeology of the Near East and Europe, pp. 84–96. Oxford: Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
  78. Stringer, C., R.N.E. Barton and C. Finlayson 2000. Neanderthals on the edge: 150th anniversary conference of the Forbes’ Quarry discovery, Gibraltar. Oxbow Books, Oxford.Google Scholar
  79. Stringer, C.B., J.C. Finlayson, R.N.E. Barton, Y. Fernández-Jalvo, I. Cáceres, R.C. Sabin, E.J. Rhodes, A.P. Currant, J. Rodríguez-Vidal, J.F. Giles-Pacheco and J.A. Riquelme-Cantal 2008. Neanderthal exploitation of marine mammals in Gibraltar. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105:14319–14324.Google Scholar
  80. Waechter, J.d’A. 1951. Excavations at Gorham’s Cave, Gibraltar. Proc. Prehist. Soc., 17:83–92.Google Scholar
  81. Waechter, J.d’A. 1964. The Excavations at Gorham’s Cave, Gibraltar, 1951–1954. Bull. Inst. Arch. London, 4:189–221.Google Scholar
  82. Yesner, D.R. 1980. Maritime hunter-gatherers: ecology and prehistory. Current Anthropology, 21:727–750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Yesner, D.R. 1987. Life in the ‘Garden of Eden’: causes and consequences of the adoption of marine diets by human societies. In M. Harris and E.B. Ross [Eds.], Food and Evolution: Toward a Theory of Human Food Habits, pp. 285–310. Temple University Press, Philadelphia.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kimberly Brown
    • 1
  • Darren A. Fa
  • Geraldine Finlayson
  • Clive Finlayson
  1. 1.The Gibraltar MuseumGibraltarUSA

Personalised recommendations