Advertisement

The Applications of Feature-Based Image Metamorphosis and Eyelashes Removal in the Investigations of Ocular Thermographic Sequences

  • Jen Hong Tan
  • E. Y. K. Ng
  • Acharya U Rajendra 
  • Jasjit S. Suri
Chapter

Abstract

Ocular surface temperature relates deeply with ocular physiology. It is nowadays looked into mainly by the use of infrared thermography, and occasionally functional infrared imaging. In this study, we recorded ocular thermographic sequences of 60 normal subjects; 30 of them were young and the rest were the elderly. Ocular region in the thermographic sequences was warped to a standardized form, and the eyelashes in each thermographic image were identified and avoided for further analysis. Average horizontal, vertical temperature profiles were unambiguously defined in the warped thermographic sequences. They were extracted, and comparisons were made between the young and the elderly. It was found that the elder subjects exhibited a cooler temperature profile, but their temperature differences between corneal center and limbus were generally higher.

Keywords

Ocular Surface Thermal Image Infrared Thermography Palpebral Fissure Image Warping 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Meola C, Carlomagno GM (2004) Recent advances in the use of infrared thermography. Meas Sci Technol 15:R27–R58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wisniewski M, Lindow S, Ashworth E (1997) Observations of ice nucleation and propagation in plants using infrared video thermography. Plant Physiol 113:327–334PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cehlin M, Moshfegh B, Sandberg M (2000) Visualization and measuring of air temperatures based on infrared thermography. Presented at the proceedings of the 7th international conference on air distribution in rooms ROOMVENT, Reading, UKGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pavlidis I, Levine J (2002) Thermal image analysis for polygraph testing. IEEE Eng Med Biol Mag 21:56–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hooshmand H, Hashmi M, Phillips EM (2001) Infrared thermal imaging as a tool in pain management an 11 year study: I. Thermol Int 11:53–65Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hooshmand H, Hashmi M, Phillips EM (2001) Infrared thermal imaging as a tool in pain management an 11 year study: II. Clinical applications. Thermol Int 11:119–129Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Merla A, Romani GL, Tangherlini A, Romualdo SD, Proietti M, Rosato E, Aversa A, Salsano F (2007) Penile cutaneous temperature in systemic sclerosis: a thermal imaging study. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 20:139–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ng EYK, Chen Y (2006) Segmentation of breast thermogram: improved boundary detection with modified snake algorithm. J Mech Med Biol 6:123–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ng EYK (2008) A review of thermography as promising non-invasive detection modality for breast tumor. Int J Therm Sci 48:849–859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Helmy A, Holdmann M, Rizkalla M (2008) Application of thermography for non-invasive diagnosis of thyroid gland disease. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 55:1168–1175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tan JH, Ng EYK, Acharya UR, Chee C (2009) Infrared thermography on ocular surface temperature: a review. Infrared Phys Technol 52:97–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kumar S, Acharya S, Beuerman R, Palkama A (2006) Numerical solution of ocular fluid dynamics in a rabbit eye: parametric effects. Ann Biomed Eng 34:530–544PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Braun RJ, Fitt AD (2003) Modelling drainage of the precorneal tear film after a blink. Math Med Biol 20:1–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bron AJ, Tiffany JM, Gouveia SM, Yokoi N, Voon LW (2004) Functional aspects of the tear film lipid layer. Exp Eye Res 78:347–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ng EYK, Ooi EH (2007) Ocular surface temperature: a 3D FEM prediction using bioheat equation. Comput Biol Med 37:829–835PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rosenbluth RF, Fatt I (1977) Temperature measurements in the eye. Exp Eye Res 25:325–341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Efron N, Young G, Brennan N (1989) Ocular surface temperature. Curr Eye Res 8:901–906PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tan L, Cai Z-Q, Lai N-S (2009) Accuracy and sensitivity of the dynamic ocular thermography and inter-subjects ocular surface temperature (OST) in Chinese young adults. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 32:78–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Purslow C, Wolffsohn JS (2007) The relation between physical properties of the anterior eye and ocular surface temperature. Optom Vis Sci 84:197–201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Murphy PJ, Morgan PB, Patel S, Marshall J (1999) Corneal surface temperature change as the mode of stimulation of the non-contact corneal aesthesiometer. Cornea 18:333–342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Morgan PB, Tullo AB, Efron N (1995) Infrared thermography of the tear film in dry eye. Eye 9:615–618PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chang T-C, Hsiao Y-L, Liao S-L (2008) Application of digital infrared thermal imaging in determining inflammatory state and follow-up effect of methylprednisolone pulse therapy in patients with Graves’ ophthalmopathy. Graefe’s Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 246:45–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Galassi F, Giambene B, Corvi A, Falaschi G (2007) Evaluation of ocular surface temperature and retrobulbar haemodynamics by infrared thermography and colour Doppler imaging in patients with glaucoma. Br J Ophthalmol 91:878–881PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Nepp J, Tsubota K, Goto E, Schauersberger J, Schild G, Jandrasits K, Abela C, Wedrich A (2002) The effect of acupuncture on the temperature of the ocular surface in conjunctivitis sicca measured by non-contact thermography: preliminary results. Adv Exp Med Biol 506:723–726PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chiang HK, ChenCY, Cheng HY, Chen K-H, Chang DO (2006) Development of infrared thermal imager for dry eye diagnosis. In: Proceedings of SPIE – the international society for optical engineering, San Diego, CA, USAGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wolberg G (1990) Digital image warping. IEEE Computer Society Press, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Beier T, Neely S (1992) Feature-based image metamorphosis. Comput Graph 26:35–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tan JH, Ng EYK, Acharya UR (2010) Evaluation of tear evaporation from ocular surface by functional infrared thermography. Med Phys 37:6022PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tan JH, EYK Ng, Acharya UR (2010) An efficient automated algorithm to detect ocular surface temperature on sequence of thermograms using snake and target tracing function. J Med Syst doi:  10.1007/s10916-010-9552-6s
  30. 30.
    Mapstone R (1968) Determinants of corneal temperature. Br J Ophthalmol 52:729–741PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Morgan PB, Soh MP, Efron N, Tullo AB (1993) Potential applications of ocular thermography. Optom Vis Sci 70:568–576PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jen Hong Tan
  • E. Y. K. Ng
  • Acharya U Rajendra 
    • 1
  • Jasjit S. Suri
  1. 1.School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, College of EngineeringNanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations