Multi-Temperature Thermodynamics: A Multiplicity of Saha Equations

  • Mario CapitelliEmail author
  • Gianpiero Colonna
  • Antonio D’Angola
Part of the Springer Series on Atomic, Optical, and Plasma Physics book series (SSAOPP, volume 66)


The multitemperature equilibrium model must be viewed in the framework of irreversible thermodynamics (Prigogine 1955). It applies to systems which can be divided in subsystems with weak interaction between each other, but with a rapid internal relaxation. In this case, each subsystem reaches an internal equilibrium, while the overall system is outside equilibrium, relaxing very slowly. The theory was originally developed for systems whose volume was geometrically divided in different parts, with high ratio volumes/surfaces, limiting exchange of mass and energy through their interfaces.


Gibbs Free Energy Partition Function Internal Degree Hydrogen Plasma Irreversible Thermodynamic 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mario Capitelli
    • 1
    Email author
  • Gianpiero Colonna
    • 2
  • Antonio D’Angola
    • 3
  1. 1.Dipartimento di ChimicaUniversità di BariBariItaly
  2. 2.Istituto di Metodologie Inorganiche e dei Plasmi (IMIP) Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR)BariItaly
  3. 3.Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Fisica dell’Ambiente (DIFA)University of BasilicataPotenzaItaly

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