Two and Three Level Systems: Toward the Understanding of the Thermodynamics of Multilevel Systems

  • Mario CapitelliEmail author
  • Gianpiero Colonna
  • Antonio D’Angola
Part of the Springer Series on Atomic, Optical, and Plasma Physics book series (SSAOPP, volume 66)


In this chapter, we will introduce few level systems to analyze the contribution of excited states on thermodynamic properties of atomic species, using elementary concepts of statistical thermodynamics. The present formulation will be applied to enthalpy and energy, as well as to thespecific heats.


Excited State Partition Function Internal Energy Statistical Weight Principal Quantum Number 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Colonna G, Capitelli M (2009) A few level approach for the electronic partition function of atomic systems. Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy 64(9):863–873ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Maczek A (1998) Statistical Thermodynamics. Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mario Capitelli
    • 1
    Email author
  • Gianpiero Colonna
    • 2
  • Antonio D’Angola
    • 3
  1. 1.Dipartimento di ChimicaUniversità di BariBariItaly
  2. 2.Istituto di Metodologie Inorganiche e dei Plasmi (IMIP) Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR)BariItaly
  3. 3.Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Fisica dell’Ambiente (DIFA)University of BasilicataPotenzaItaly

Personalised recommendations